California Fertilization Guidelines

UC Davis
A collaboration between CDFA, FREP and UC Davis
 
N-P-K

Water Seeded Rice

The fertilization guidelines on this site have been redesigned to be compliant with AB434. The guidelines in the traditional design with the latest updates can be found on the UC Davis Nutrient Management website .

Drill Seeded Rice

The application rates for N, P and K are the same as for water seeded rice; however, pre-plant fertilizer is generally not required. All of the N, P, and K should be applied just before permanent flood, 3-5 weeks after planting in the form of granular fertilizer.

As with water seeded rice, midseason applications are only done if necessary and should be based on a leaf color chart or chlorophyll meter readings. Applications should not be made after panicle initiation, which occurs approximately 55-60 days after planting. Contact your local farm advisor for more information.


References

Nitrogen

  1. Broadbent, F.E., Mikkelsen, D.S., 1968. Influence of placement on uptake of tagged nitrogen by rice. Agronomy Journal 60, 674-677.
  2. Cao, Z.H., de Datta, S.K., Fillery, I.R.P., 1984. Nitrogen-15 balance and residual effects of urea-N in wetland rice fields as affected by deep placement techniques. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48, 203-208.
  3. Choudhury, A.T.M.A., Kennedy, I.R., 2005. Nitrogen fertilizer losses from rice soils and control of environmental pollution problems. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36, 1625-1639.
  4. Dobermann, A., Fairhurst, T., 2000. Rice: nutrient disorders and nutrient management. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.
  5. Eagle, A.J., Bird, J.A., Horwath, W.R., Linquist, B.A., Brouder, S.M., Hill, J.E., van Kessel, C., 2000. Rice yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency under alternative straw management practices. Agronomy Journal 92, 1096-1103.
  6. Liang, X.Q., Harter, T., Porta, L., van Kessel, C., Linquist B. A., 2014. Nitrate leaching in Californian rice fields: A field and regional-scale assessment. Journal of Environmental Quality 43, 881-894.
  7. Linquist, B.A., Brouder, S.M., Hill, J.E., 2006. Winter straw and water management effects on soil nitrogen dynamics in California rice systems. Agronomy Journal 98, 1050-1059.
  8. Linquist, B.A., van Kessel, C.,Hill, 2008. Improving fertilizer guidelines for California's changing rice climate. California Rice Research Board Annual Report.
  9. Linquist, B.A., Hill, J.E., Mutters, R.G., Greer, C.A., Hartley, C., Ruark, M.D., van Kessel, C., 2009. Assessing the necessity of surface-applied preplant nitrogen fertilizer in rice systems. Agronomy Journal 101, 906-915.
  10. Linquist, B.A., van Kessel, C.,Hill, 2010. Improving fertilizer guidelines for California's changing rice climate. California Rice Research Board Annual Report.
  11. Linquist, B.A., Koffler, K., Hill, J.E., van Kessel, C., 2011. Rice field drainage affects nitrogen dynamics and management. California Agriculture, 65(2), 80-84.
  12. Mikkelsen, D.S., 1976. Diagnostic plant analysis for rice. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 30-31.
  13. Mikkelsen, D.S., 1987. Nitrogen budgets in flooded soils used for rice production. Plant and Soil 100, 71-97.
  14. Mikkelsen, D.S., Finfrock, D.C., 1957. Fertilizer placement for rice. California Agriculture, 11(7), 7 and 15.
  15. Mikkelsen, D.S., Miller, M.D., 1963. Nitrogen fertilization of rice in California. California Agriculture 17(8):9-11.
  16. Moldenhauer, K., Slaton, N.,2001. Rice growth and development. In: Slaton N.A. (Ed.), Rice Production Handbook. Publication 192. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Arkansas, Little Rock. pp. 7-14.
  17. Mutters, R.G., 2008. Development of a leaf color chart for California rice varieties. FREP Final Report.
  18. Mutters, C., 2010. Midseason nitrogen fertilizer. University of California Cooperative Extension. Butte County Rice Leaf, June 2010, 2-3.
  19. Pittelkow, C.M., Assa, Y., Burger, M., Mutters, R.G., Greer, C.A., Espino, L.A., Hill, J.E., Horwath, W.R., van Kessel, C., Linquist, B.A., 2014. Nitrogen management and methane emissions in direct-seeded rice systems. Agronomy Journal 106, 968-980.
  20. UC IPM [University of California Integrated Pest Management Program], 1993. Integrated pest management for rice 2nd edition. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3280.
  21. University of California Cooperative Extension, 2012. Rice production workshop manual.
  22. Westcott, M.P., Brandon, D.M., Lindau, C.W., Patrick, W.H. Jr., 1986. Effects of seeding method and time of fertilization on urea-nitrogen-15 recovery in rice. Agronomy Journal 78, 474-478.
  23. Williams, J.F., 2010. Rice nutrient management in California. University of California, Agricultural and Natural Resources, publication 3516.
  24. Yang, W.H., Peng, S., Huang, J., Sanico, A.L., Buresh, R.J., Witt, C., 2003. Using leaf color charts to estimate leaf nitrogen status of rice. Agronomy Journal 95, 212-217.

Phosphorus

  1. Dobermann, A., Fairhurst, T., 2000. Rice: nutrient disorders and nutrient management. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.
  2. Dobermann, A., Cassman, K.G., Mamaril, C.P., Sheehy, J.E., 1998. Management of phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in intensive, irrigated lowland rice. Field Crops Research 56, 113-138.
  3. Linquist, B., Ruark, M., 2011. Re-evaluating diagnostic phosphorus tests for rice systems based on soil phosphorus fractions and field level budgets. Agronomy Journal 103, 501-508.
  4. Linquist, B.A., van Kessel, C.,Hill, 2010. Improving fertilizer guidelines for California's changing rice climate. California Rice Research Board Annual Report.
  5. Lundy, M.E., Spencer, D.F., van Kessel, C., Hill, J.E., Linquist, B.A., 2012. Managing phosphorus fertilizer to reduce algae, maintain water quality, and sustain yields in water-seeded rice. Field Crops Research 131, 81-87.
  6. Mikkelsen, D.S., 1976. Diagnostic plant analysis for rice. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 30-31.
  7. Nader, G., Robinson P., Connor, M., 2004. Defining the forage variability in rice straw. California Rice Research Board Annual Report.
  8. Sharma, P.K., Pantuwan, G., Ingram, K.T., de Datta, S.K., 1994. Rainfed lowland rice roots: Soil and hydrological effects. In: Kirk, G.J.D. (Ed.) Rice Roots: Nutrient and Water Use. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. pp. 55-66.
  9. Spencer, D.F., Lembi, C.A., 2007. Assessing alternative methods for managing algae in California rice fields. California Rice Research Board Annual Report.
  10. Spencer, D.F., Lembi, C.A., 2009. Assessing alternative methods for managing algae in California rice fields. California Rice Research Board Annual Report.
  11. Spencer, D.F., Linquist, B.A., 2014. Reducing rice field algae and cyanobacteria by altering phosphorus fertilizer applications. Paddy and Water Environment 12, 147-154.
  12. UC IPM [University of California Integrated Pest Management Program], 1993. Integrated pest management for rice 2nd edition. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3280.
  13. van Kessel, C., Linquist, B., 2008. Fertility management in rice. FREP Final Report.
  14. Williams, J.F., 2010. Rice nutrient management in California. University of California, Agricultural and Natural Resources, publication 3516.

Potassium

  1. Bakker, R.R., Jenkins, B.M., 2003. Feasibility of collecting naturally leached rice straw for thermal conversion. Biomass and Bioenergy 25, 597-614.
  2. Dobermann, A., Fairhurst, T., 2000. Rice: nutrient disorders and nutrient management. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.
  3. Dobermann, A., Cassman, K.G., Mamaril, C.P., Sheehy, J.E., 1998. Management of phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in intensive, irrigated lowland rice. Field Crops Research 56, 113-138.
  4. Espino, L., 2012. Potassium Fertility in Rice. University of California Cooperative Extension. Colusa County Rice Briefs, April 1-2.
  5. Mikkelsen, D.S., 1976. Diagnostic plant analysis for rice. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 30-31.
  6. Linquist, B., 2013. Management of potassium in California rice systems. Presentation held at the annual rice grower meetings.
  7. Linquist, B., Ruark, M., 2011. Re-evaluating diagnostic phosphorus tests for rice systems based on soil phosphorus fractions and field level budgets. Agronomy Journal 103:501-508.
  8. Linquist, B.A., Byous, E., Jones, G., Williams, J.F., Six., J., Horwath, W., van Kessel., C., 2008. Nitrogen and potassium fertility impacts on aggregate sheath spot disease and yields of rice. Plant Production Science 11, 260-267.
  9. Nader, G., Robinson P., Connor, M., 2004. Defining the forage variability in rice straw. California Rice Research Board Annual Report.
  10. Sharma, P.K., Pantuwan, G., Ingram, K.T., de Datta, S.K., 1994. Rainfed lowland rice roots: Soil and hydrological effects. In: Kirk, G.J.D. (Ed.) Rice Roots: Nutrient and Water Use. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. pp. 55-66.
  11. Sims, J.L., Place, G.A., 1968. Growth and nutrient uptake of rice at different growth stages and nitrogen levels. Agronomy Journal 60, 692-696.
  12. UC IPM [University of California Integrated Pest Management Program], 1993. Integrated pest management for rice 2nd edition. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3280.
  13. van Kessel, C., Linquist, B., 2008. Fertility management in rice. FREP Final Report.
  14. van Kessel, C., Byous, E., Jones, G., Horwath, W.R., Williams, J.K., 2001. Potassium responses in rice fields as affected by straw management practices. FREP Final Report.
  15. Williams, J.F., 2010. Rice nutrient management in California. University of California, Agricultural and Natural Resources, publication 3516.