California Fertilization Guidelines

UC Davis
A collaboration between CDFA, FREP and UC Davis
 
N-P-K

Principles of NPK Management

The fertilization guidelines on this site have been redesigned to be compliant with AB434. The guidelines in the traditional design with the latest updates can be found on the UC Davis Nutrient Management website .

References

Nitrogen

  1. Baldini, M., Vannozzi, G., Macchia, M., Turi, M., 1996. Relationship between different water and nitrogen supplies on yield and nitrogen utilisation and partitioning in sunflower. 14th International Sunflower Conference, Shenyang, China. Vol 1, 412-418.
  2. Bender, B.A., 1993. Onions. In: Bennett, W.F., (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul., MN. pp. 131-135.
  3. Bendixen, W., 1998. Evaluation of controlled release fertilizers and fertigation in strawberries and vegetables. FREP Final Report.
  4. Blamey, F.P.C., Edwards, D.G., Asher, C.J., 1987. Nutritional disorders of sunflower. Department of Agriculture, University of Queensland, Australia.
  5. Bouwmeester, R.J.B., Vlek, P.L.G., Stumpe, J.M., 1985. Effect of environmental factors on ammonia volatilization from a urea fertilized soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49, 376-381.
  6. Bremner, J.M., Krogmeir, M.J., 1989. Evidence that the adverse effect of urea fertilizer on seed germination in soil is due to ammonia formed through hydrolysis of urea by soil urease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 86, 8185-8188.
  7. Brown, B., 2000. Southern Idaho fertilizer guide for onions. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension.
  8. Cahn, M.D., Smith, R., 2013. Estimating N contribution from irrigation water containing nitrate.
  9. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  10. Clark, R.B., 1993. Sorghum. In: Bennett, W.F., (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul., MN. pp. 21-26.
  11. Doerge, T.A., Roth, R.L., Gardner, B.R., 1991. Nitrogen fertilizer management in Arizona: Cantaloupe. University of Arizona. pp. 52-54.
  12. Fageria, N.K., Barbosa Filho, M.P., Moreira, A., Guimarães, C.M., 2009. Foliar fertilization of crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1044-1064.
  13. Feigin, A., Letey, J., Jarrell, W.M., 1982. Nitrogen utilization efficiency by drip irrigated celery receiving preplant or water applied N fertilizer. Agronomy Journal 74, 978-983.
  14. Fernández, F.G., Nafziger, E.D., Ebelhar, S.A., Hoeft, R.G., 2012. Managing nitrogen. University of Illinois Extension & Outreach. Illinois Agronomy Handbook.
  15. Geisseler, D., Horwath, W.R., 2015. Crop nitrogen uptake and partitioning.
  16. Goswami, K., Srivastava, G.C., 1987. Effect of foliar application of urea on leaf senescence and photosynthesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Photosynthetica 22, 99-104.
  17. Grogan, R.G., Zink, F.W., 1956. Fertilizer injury to lettuce. California Agriculture 10(12), 5-16.
  18. Grove, I.G., Haydock, P.P.J., Evans, K., Lewis, D.J., 1999. Basal fertiliser application method, tuber initiation nitrogen, foliar NPK and the tolerance of potatoes to infection by the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida. Annals of Applied Biology 134, 205-214.
  19. Grunes, D.L., 1959. Effect of nitrogen on the availability of soil and fertilizer phosphorus to plants. Advances in Agronomy 11, 369-396.
  20. Hall, R., Schwartz, H.F., 1993. Common bean. In: Bennett, W.F., (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul., MN. pp. 149- 156.
  21. Hartz, T., 1998. Evaluation of pre-sidedress soil nitrate testing to determine N requirements of cool season vegetables. FREP Final Report .
  22. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Soil testing for nutrient availability: procedures and interpretation for California vegetable crop production. University of California Vegetable Research and Information Center.
  23. Hartz, T.K., Smith, R.F., 2009. Controlled-release fertilizer for vegetable production: The California experience. HortTechnology 19, 20-22.
  24. Hartz, T.K., Bendixen, W.E., Wierdsma, L., 2000. The value of presidedress soil nitrate testing as a nitrogen management tool in irrigated vegetable production. HortScience 35, 651-656.
  25. Hartz, T.K., Giannini, C., Miyao, E.M., Valencia, J.G., 2002. Divergent transplant production practices produce comparable growth, yield, and quality of processing tomatoes. HortScience 37, 296-299.
  26. Havlin, J.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., 2005. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, 7th ed. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
  27. Hemphill, D.D., 1982. Anti crustant effects on soil mechanical resistance and seedling emergence. HortScience 17, 391-393.
  28. Hemphill, D., 2010. Celery. Oregon State University Department of Horticulture.
  29. Hocking, P.J., Steer, B.T., 1983. Distribution of nitrogen during growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Annals of Botany 51, 787-799. Field Crops Research 6, 93-107.
  30. Hocking, P.J., Steer, B.T., 1995. Effects of timing and supply of nitrogen on nitrogen remobilization from vegetative organs and redistribution to developing seeds of sunflower. Plant & Soil 170, 359-370.
  31. Hussain, R.A., Ahmad, R., Mawaz, F., Ashraf, M.Y., Waraich, E.A., 2016. Foliar NK application mitigates drought effects in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 38:83.
  32. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996. Prebloom decisions. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 29-50.
  33. Jones, C.A., Koenig, R.T., Ellsworth, J.W., Brown, B.D., Jackson, G.D., 2007. Management of urea fertilizer to minimize volatilization. Extension Publication EB 173, Montana State University.
  34. Kelling, K.A., Hensler, R.F., Speth, P.E., 2015. Importance of early-season nitrogen rate and placement to Russet Burbank potatoes. American Journal of Potato Research. DOI: 10.1007/s12230-015-9464-6.
  35. Kerns, D.L., Matheron, M.E., Palumbo, J.C., Sanchez, C.A., Still, D.W., Tickes, B.R., Umeda, K., Wilcox, M.A., 1999. Guidelines for head lettuce production in Arizona. Cooperative Extension University of Arizona.
  36. Lang, N.S., Stevens, R.G., Thornton, R.E., Pan, W.L., Victory, S., 1999. Potato nutrient management for central Washington. Washington State University Cooperative Extension publication EB1871.
  37. Lazicki, P.A., Geisseler, D., 2016. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops. California Agriculture 71(2), 90-95.
  38. Le Strange, M., Cahn, M.D., Koike, S.T., Smith, R.F., Daugovish, O., Fennimore, S.A., Natwick, E.T., Dara, S.K., Takele, E., Cantwell, M.I., 2010. Broccoli production in California . UC ANR Publication 7211.
  39. Lingle, J.C., Wight, J.R., 1964. Fertilizer experiments with cantaloupes. University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences Bulletin 807.
  40. Linquist, B.A., Cassman, K.G., Fulton, A.E., Jackson, L.F., 1992. Late-season nitrogen may be efficient way to increase winter wheat protein. California Agriculture 46(2), 13-16.
  41. Locascio, S.J., 1993. Cucurbits: Cucumber, muskmelon, and watermelon. In: Bennett, W.F., (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul., MN. pp. 123-130.
  42. Long, R., Mathesius, K., Vaccaro, B., Symmes, E., Bali, K., Gulya, T., (in preparation). Sunflower hybrid seed production in California. UC ANR Publication.
  43. Lorenz, O.A., Tyler, K.B., 1976. Plant tissue analysis of vegetable crops. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 24-29.
  44. Lorenz, O.A., Bishop, J.C., Hoyle, B.J., Zobel, M.P., Minges, P.A., Doneen, L.D., Ulrich, A., 1954. Potato fertilizer experiments in California. California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 744.
  45. Makries, J.L., Warncke, D.D., 2013. Timing nitrogen applications for quality tops and healthy root production in carrot. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis 44, 2860-2874.
  46. May, D., Le Strange, M., Hanson, B., 2008. Fertilizer and irrigation studies in drip irrigated fresh market onions and furrow irrigated garlic and processed onions. Garlic and Onion Symposium, Tulare, California, Feb 11, 2008.
  47. McVay, K., Burrows, M., Jones, C., Wanner, K., Manalled, F., 2009. Montana barley production guide . Extension Publication EB 0186, Montana State University.
  48. Miyao, G., 2002. Fertilizer guidelines for processing tomatoes. Vegetable Crop Facts Merced and Madera County.
  49. Munier, D., Kearney, T., Pettygrove, G.S., Brittan, K., Mathews, M., Jackson, L., 2006. Fertilization of small grains. In: UC ANR (Ed.). Small Grain Production Manual. ANR Publication 8208.
  50. Oosterhuis, D.M., Hake, K., Burmester, C., 1991. Foliar feeding cotton. Cotton Physiology Today 2, 1-8.
  51. Pettygrove, S., Hartz, T., Hanson, B., Jackson, L., Smith, R., Lockhart, T., Grattan, S., 2003. Nutrient management in cool-season vegetables. UC ANR Pub 8098. Oakland, CA.
  52. Pew, W.D., Gardner, B.R., 1972. Nitrogen effects on cantaloupes. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis 3, 467-476.
  53. Sangakkara, U.R., Cho, C.M., 1987. Effect of NH4+ nitrogen on phosphorus uptake by canola, lentils, soybeans and wheat. Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science 159, 199-201.
  54. Schulbach, K., Smith, R., Hartz, T., Jackson, L., 1996. Guide to nitrogen quick-tests for vegetables with the 'Cardy' nitrate meter. FREP Final Report.
  55. Shelp, B.J., 1987. Plant characteristics and nutrient composition and mobility of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) supplied with NH4+, NO3- or NH4NO3 . Journal of Experimental Botany 38, 1603- 1618.
  56. Smith, R., 2011. Fertilizer burn issues on lettuce . Salinas Valley Agriculture.
  57. Smith, R., 2012. Nitrification inhibitors and controlled release fertilizers.
  58. Stone, D.A., 1998. The effects of 'starter' fertilization injection on the growth and yield of drilled vegetable crops in relation to soil nutrient status. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 73, 441-451.
  59. Sullivan, D.M., Brown, B.D., Shock, C.C., Horneck, D.A., Stevens, R.G., Pelter, G.Q., Fiebert, E.B.G., 2001. Nutrient management for onions in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Extension Publication 546.
  60. Tan, X.W., Ikeda, H., Oda, M., 1999. Absorption, translocation, and assimilation of foliar-applied urea compared with nitrate and ammonium in tomato plants. Soil Science & Plant Nutrition 45, 609-616.
  61. Turner, D.O., Brauen, S.E., Halvorson, A.R., 1976. Fertilizer guide: winter wheat and barley for western Washington. FG-17 (Rev). Washington State University Cooperative Extension Service.
  62. University of California Small Farms Program, 2012. Fertilizing vegetables.
  63. Veseth, R., 1984. Fertility management for no-till and minimum tillage systems. In: Pacific Northwest Conservation Tillage Handbook.
  64. Vigil, M.F., Hergert, G.W., Mengel, D.B., 2009. Nutrient management. In: Meyer, R., (Ed.). High Plains Sunflower Production Handbook. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service MF-2384.
  65. Voss, R.E., Mayberry, K.S., 1999. Dehydrator bulb onion production in California. UC ANR Publication 7239.
  66. Wallace, T., 1943. The diagnosis of mineral deficiencies in plants by visual symptoms. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  67. Walworth, J.L., Carling, D.E., Michaelson, G.J., 1992. Nitrogen sources and rates for direct-seeded and transplanted head lettuce. HortScience 27, 228-230.
  68. Webster, J.R., Jackson, L.F., 1993. Management practices to reduce lodging and maximize grain yield and protein content of fall- sown irrigated hard red spring wheat. Field Crops Research 33, 249-259.
  69. Weir, R.G., Cresswell, G.C., 1993. Plant nutrient disorders 3. Vegetable crops. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Sidney.
  70. Wells, B.R., Huey, B.A., Norman, R.J., Helms, R.S., 1993. Rice. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 15-20.
  71. Wilcox, G.E., 1993. Tomato. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 137-141.

Phosphorus

  1. Bednarz, C.W., Hopper, N.W., and Hickey, M.G., 1999. Effects of foliar fertilization of Texas southern high plains cotton: Leaf phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iron, manganese, boron, calcium, and yield distribution. Journal of Plant Nutrition 22, 863-875.
  2. Bender, B.A., 1993. Onions. In: Bennett, W.F., (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul., MN. pp. 131-135.
  3. Blamey, F.P.C., Edwards, D.G., Asher, C.J., 1987. Nutritional disorders of sunflower. Department of Agriculture, University of Queensland, Australia.
  4. Brandon, D.M., Mikkelsen, D.S., 1979. Phosphorus transformations in alternately flooded California soils: I. Cause of plant phosphorus deficiency in rice rotation crops and correctional methods. Soil Science of America Journal 43, 989-994.
  5. Brewster, J.L., 2008. Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums, 2nd Edition. CAB International.
  6. Brown, B., 2000. Southern Idaho fertilizer guide for onions. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension.
  7. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  8. Cassman, K. G. 1993. Cotton. In Bennett, W. F. (Ed.) Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 111-119.
  9. Fageria, N.K., Barbosa Filho, M.P., Moreira, A., Guimarães, C.M., 2009. Foliar fertilization of crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1044-1064.
  10. Geisseler, D., Miyao, G., 2016. Soil testing for P and K has value in nutrient management for annual crops. California Agriculture 70(3), 152-159.
  11. Girma, K., Martin, K.L., Freeman, K.W., Mosali, J., Teal, R.K., Raun, W.R., Moges, S.M., Arnall, D.B., 2007. Determination of optimum rate and growth stage for foliar-applied phosphorus in corn. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis 38, 1137-1154.
  12. Grant, C.A., Flaten, D.N., Tomasiewicz, D.J., Sheppard, S.C., 2001. The importance of early season phosphorus nutrition. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 81, 211-224.
  13. Greenwood, D.J., Gerwitz, A., Stone, D.A., Barnes, A., 1982. Root development of vegetable crops. Plant & Soil 68, 75-96.
  14. Grunes, D.L., 1959. Effect of nitrogen on the availability of soil and fertilizer phosphorus to plants. Advances in Agronomy 11, 369-396.
  15. Hartz, T.K., Hanson, B., 2009. Drip irrigation and fertigation management of processing tomato. University of California Vegetable Research and Information Center.
  16. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Soil testing for nutrient availability: procedures and interpretation for California vegetable crop production. University of California Vegetable Research and Information Center.
  17. Hartz, T.K., Johnstone, P.R., Williams, E., Smith, R.F., 2007. Establishing lettuce leaf nutrient optimum ranges through DRIS analysis. HortScience, 42, 143-146.
  18. Havlin, J.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., 2005. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, 7th ed. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
  19. Hemphill, D.D., 1982. Anti crustant effects on soil mechanical resistance and seedling emergence. HortScience 17, 391-393.
  20. Hopkins, B.G., Ellsworth, J.W., Bowen, T.R., Cook, A.G., Stephens, S.C., Jolley, V.D., Shiffler, A.K., Eggett, D., 2010. Phosphorus fertilizer timing for Russet Burbank potato grown in calcareous soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33, 529-540.
  21. Hopkins, B.G., Horneck, D.A., MacGuidwin, A.E., 2014. Improving phosphorus use efficiency through potato rhizosphere modification and extension. American Journal of Potato Research 91, 161-174.
  22. International Plant Nutrition Institute. Nutrient Source Specifics.
  23. Jaafar, M.N., Stone, L.R., Goodrum, D.E., 1993. Rooting depth and dry matter development of sunflower. Agronomy Journal 85, 281-286.
  24. Jones, C., Jacobsen, J., 2009. Fertilizer placement and timing . Montana State University Extension 4449-11.
  25. Kerns, D.L., Matheron, M.E., Palumbo, J.C., Sanchez, C.A., Still, D.W., Tickes, B.R., Umeda, K., Wilcox, M.A., 1999. Guidelines for head lettuce production in Arizona. Cooperative Extension University of Arizona.
  26. Lang, N.S., Stevens, R.G., Thornton, R.E., Pan, W.L., Victory, S., 1999. Potato nutrient management for central Washington. Washington State University Cooperative Extension publication EB1871.
  27. Lingle, J.C., Wight, J.R., 1964. Fertilizer experiments with cantaloupes. University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences Bulletin 807.
  28. Lorenz, O.A., Tyler, K.B., 1976. Plant tissue analysis of vegetable crops. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 24-29.
  29. Lorenz, O.A., Bishop, J.C., Hoyle, B.J., Zobel, M.P., Minges, P.A., Doneen, L.D., Ulrich, A., 1954. Potato fertilizer experiments in California. California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 744.
  30. López-Bucio, J., Cruz-Ramírez, A., Herrera-Estrella, L., 2003. The role of nutrient availability in regulating root architecture. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6, 280-287.
  31. Machado, R.M.A., Oliveira, M.R.G., 2005. Tomato root distribution, yield and fruit quality under different subsurface drip irrigation regimes and depths. Irrigation Science 24, 15-24.
  32. Malakondaiah, N., Safaya, N.M., Wali, M.K., 1981. Responses of alfalfa and barley to foliar application of N and P on a coal mine spoil. Plant & Soil 59, 441-453.
  33. Martin, W.E., Sailsbery, R.L., Brandon, M., Petersen, R.T., 1971. Answering the riddle of poor safflower after rice: banded phosphorus may be the solution. California Agriculture 25(9), 4-6.
  34. Miyao, G., 2002. Fertilizer guidelines for processing tomatoes. Vegetable Crop Facts Merced and Madera County.
  35. Mosali, J., Desta, K., Teal, R.K., Freeman, K.W., Martin, K.L., Lawles, J.W., Raun, W.R., 2006. Effect of foliar application of phosphorus on winter wheat grain yield, phosphorus uptake, and use efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29, 2147-2163.
  36. Mukherjee, S.K., De, R., Saxena, P.N., 1966. Efficiency of utilization of soil- and foliar- applied nitrogen and phosphorus as revealed by tuber production and nutrient uptake of potatoes. Soil Science 102, 278-283.
  37. Munier, D., Kearney, T., Pettygrove, G.S., Brittan, K., Mathews, M., Jackson, L., 2006. Fertilization of small grains. In: UC ANR (Ed.). Small Grain Production Manual. ANR Publication 8208.
  38. Oosterhuis, D.M., Hake, K., Burmester, C., 1991. Foliar feeding cotton. Cotton Physiology Today 2, 1-8.
  39. Pace, M.G., Israelsen, C.E., Creech, E., Allen, N., 2015. Growing safflower in Utah. Utah State University Extension.
  40. Pettygrove, S., Hartz, T., Hanson, B., Jackson, L., Smith, R., Lockhart, T., Grattan, S., 2003. Nutrient management in cool-season vegetables. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8098.
  41. Reisenauer, H.M., Quick, J., Voss, R.E., 1976. Soil test interpretive guides. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 38-40.
  42. Smith, R., Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., Daugovish, O., Natwick, Nunez, J., Takele, E., Turini, T., 2011. Fresh-market bulb onion production in California. UC ANR Publication 7242.
  43. Stark, J.C., Brown, B.D., 2003. Nutrient management. In: Robertson, L.D., Stark, J.C. (Ed.). Idaho Spring Barley Production Guide. University of Idaho Bulletin 742, 22-26.
  44. Stone, D.A., 1998. The effects of 'starter' fertilization injection on the growth and yield of drilled vegetable crops in relation to soil nutrient status. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 73, 441-451.
  45. Turner, D.O., Brauen, S.E., Halvorson, A.R., 1976. Fertilizer guide: winter wheat and barley for western Washington. FG-17 (Rev). Washington State University Cooperative Extension Service.
  46. UC IPM, 2009. UC IPM pest management guidelines: Lettuce fertilization. UC ANR Publication 3450.
  47. University of California Small Farms Program, 2012. Fertilizing vegetables.
  48. Veseth, R., 1984. Fertility management for no-till and minimum tillage systems. In: Pacific Northwest Conservation Tillage Handbook.
  49. Vigil, M.F., Hergert, G.W., Mengel, D.B., 2009. Nutrient management. In: Meyer, R., (Ed.). High Plains Sunflower Production Handbook. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service MF-2384.
  50. Wallace, T., 1943. The diagnosis of mineral deficiencies in plants by visual symptoms. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  51. Wiese, M.V., 1993. Wheat and other small grains. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 27-33.
  52. Wilcox, G.E., 1993. Tomato. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 137- 141.

Potassium

  1. Aown, M., Raza, S., Saleem, M.F., Anjum, S.A., Khaliq, T., Wahid, M.A., 2012. Foliar application of potassium under water deficit conditions improved the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 22, 431- 437.
  2. Brennan, R.F., Jayasena, K.W., 2010. Increasing applications of potassium fertilizer to barley crops grown on deficient sandy soils increased grain yields while decreasing some foliar diseases. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58, 680-689.
  3. Brown, B., 2009. Irrigated winter barley. Idaho Nutrient Management, University of Idaho.
  4. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  5. Fageria, N.K., Barbosa Filho, M.P., Moreira, A., Guimarães, C.M., 2009. Foliar fertilization of crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1044-1064.
  6. Geisseler, D., Miyao, G., 2016. Soil testing for P and K has value in nutrient management for annual crops. California Agriculture 70(3), 152-159.
  7. Greenwood, D.J., Gerwitz, A., Stone, D.A., Barnes, A., 1982. Root development of vegetable crops. Plant & Soil 68, 75-96.
  8. Halevy J., 1976. Growth rate and nutrient uptake of two cotton cultivars grown under irrigation. Agronomy Journal 68, 701-705.
  9. Hartz, T.K., 2007a. Efficient nitrogen management for cool-season vegetables.
  10. Hartz, T.K., 2007b. Soil testing for nutrient availability: procedures and interpretation for California vegetable crop production. University of California Vegetable Research and Information Center.
  11. Hartz, T.K., Miyao, E.M., Mullen, R.J., Cahn, M.D., Valencia, J., Brittan, K.L., 1999. Potassium requirements for maximum yield and fruit quality of processing tomato. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 124, 199-204.
  12. Hartz, T.K., Johnstone, P.R., Francis, D.M., Miyao, E.M., 2005. Processing tomato yield and fruit quality improved with potassium fertigation. HortScience 40, 1862-1867.
  13. Havlin, J.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., 2005. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, 7th ed. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
  14. Hopkins, B., Stark, J., 2010. Potato nutrition. In: Bohl, W.H., Johnson, S.B., (Eds.). Commercial Potato Production in North America. American Potato Journal Supplement Vol. 57, 2nd revision. pp. 57- 62.
  15. International Plant Nutrition Institute. Nutrient Source Specifics.
  16. Jaafar, M.N., Stone, L.R., Goodrum, D.E., 1993. Rooting depth and dry matter development of sunflower. Agronomy Journal 85, 281-286.
  17. Jackson, G.D., Kushnak, G.D., Benson, A.N., Skogley, E.O., Lund, R.E., 1991. Potassium response in no-till small grain production. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 8, 89-92.
  18. Jifon, J.L., Lester, G.E., 2009. Foliar potassium fertilization improves fruit quality of field-grown muskmelon on calcareous soils in south Texas. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 89, 2452-2460.
  19. Johnson Hake, S., Hake, K.D., Kerby, T.A., 1996a. Preparation for the new crop season - fall/winter. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 6-14.
  20. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996b. Prebloom decisions. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.). Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 29- 50.
  21. Kaffka, S.R., Kearney, T.E., 1998. Safflower production in California. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 21565.
  22. Khan, M.Z., Akhtar, M.E., Safdar, M.N., Mahmood, M.M., Ahman, S., Ahmed, N., 2010. Effect of source and level of potash on yield and quality of potato tubers. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 3137-3145.
  23. Lang, N.S., Stevens, R.G., Thornton, R.E., Pan, W.L., Victory, S., 1999. Potato nutrient management for central Washington. Washington State University Cooperative Extension publication EB1871.
  24. Lorenz, O.A., Tyler, K.B., 1976. Plant tissue analysis of vegetable crops. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 24-29.
  25. Lorenz, O.A., Bishop, J.C., Hoyle, B.J., Zobel, M.P., Minges, P.A., Doneen, L.D., Ulrich, A., 1954. Potato fertilizer experiments in California. California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 744.
  26. Machado, R.M.A., Oliveira, M.R.G., 2005. Tomato root distribution, yield and fruit quality under different subsurface drip irrigation regimes and depths. Irrigation Science 24, 15-24.
  27. Marsh, B., Pettygrove, S., Southard, R., Roberts, B., Munk, D., Vargas, R., Hutmacher, B., 2003. Soil and plant sampling: key to potassium management. California Cotton Review 66, 8-9.
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