CDFA Plant Health

Encycloweedia: Weed Ratings

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A noxious weed is a plant that has been defined as a pest by law or regulation. Both California and the U.S government maintain lists of plants that are considered threats to the well being of the state or the country. The two lists differ significantly.

In California, biologists of the California Department of Food and Agriculture recommend plants for listing, after consultation with outside experts and the Agricultural Commissioners of California's counties (CACs). If a plant is found to probably be "troublesome, aggressive, intrusive, detrimental, or destructive to agriculture, silviculture, or important native species, and difficult to control or eradicate", the Department will designate the plant as a noxious weed.

At the time that CDFA lists a species, it also receives a rating of A, B, C, D, or Q. These ratings reflect CDFA's view of the statewide importance of the pest, the likelihood that eradication or control efforts would be successful, and the present distribution of the pest within the state. The ratings are not laws, but are policy guidelines that indicate the most appropriate action to take against a pest under general circumstances. Local conditions may dictate more stringent actions at the discretion of the CAC, and the rating may change as circumstances change.

The precise policy language is given below. This system has been in place since at least 1977, and  revised in May 2009. The term "commissioners" refers to the County Agricultural Commissioners.


To advise commissioners as to the Department's policy regarding any pest action.


A pest of known economic or environmental detriment and is either not known to be established in California or it is present in a limited distribution that allows for the possibility of eradication or successful containment. A-rated pests are prohibited from entering the state because, by virtue of their rating, they have been placed on the of Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services Director’s list of organisms “detrimental to agriculture” in accordance with the FAC Sections 5261 and 6461. The only exception is for organisms accompanied by an approved CDFA or USDA live organism permit for contained exhibit or research purposes. If found entering or established in the state, A-rated pests are subject to state (or commissioner when acting as a state agent) enforced action involving eradication, quarantine regulation, containment, rejection, or other holding action.

An pest of known economic or environmental detriment and, if present in California, it is of limited distribution. B-rated pests are eligible to enter the state if the receiving county has agreed to accept them. If found in the state, they are subject to state endorsed holding action and eradication only to provide for containment, as when found in a nursery. At the discretion of the individual county agricultural commissioner they are subject to eradication, containment, suppression, control, or other holding action.

A pest of known economic or environmental detriment and, if present in California, it is usually widespread. C-rated organisms are eligible to enter the state as long as the commodities with which they are associated conform to pest cleanliness standards when found in nursery stock shipments. If found in the state, they are subject to regulations designed to retard spread or to suppress at the discretion of the individual county agricultural commissioner. There is no state enforced action other than providing for pest cleanliness.

An organism or disorder suspected to be of economic or environmental detriment, but whose status is uncertain because of incomplete identification or inadequate information.

An organism known to be of little or no economic or environmental detriment, to have an extremely low likelihood of weediness, or is known to be a parasite or predator. There is no state enforced action.

This notation indicates that a plant is included in the CCR Section 4500 list of California State Noxious Weeds.