California Fertilization Guidelines

UC Davis
A collaboration between CDFA, FREP and UC Davis
 
N-P-K

Olives

The fertilization guidelines on this site have been redesigned to be compliant with AB434. The guidelines in the traditional design with the latest updates can be found on the UC Davis Nutrient Management website .

References

Nitrogen

  1. Belguerri, H., Villar, J.M., Pascual, M., Fatmi, A., Amadeu, A., Rufat, J., 2016. A proposal of nitrogen balance in a very high density olive orchard. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences 8, 639-654.
  2. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
  3. Bustan, A., Avni, A., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Riov, J., Erel, R., Zipori, I., Dag, A., 2013. Interactions between fruit load and macroelement concentrations in fertigated olive (Olea europaea L.) trees under arid saline conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 152, 44-55.
  4. Cameira, M.R., Pereira, A., Ahuja, L., Ma, L., 2014. Sustainability and environmental assessment of fertigation in an intensive olive grove under Mediterranean conditions. Agricultural Water Management 146, 346-360.
  5. Chatzissavvidis, C.A., Therios, I.N., Antonopoulou, C., 2007. Effect of nitrogen source on olives growing in soils with high boron content. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47, 1491-1497.
  6. Connell, J., 2011. Olive mineral nutrition.
  7. Connell, J., Vossen, P.M., 2006. Fertility management for oil olives. First Press 1(3), 1-2.
  8. Connell, J.H., Ferguson, L., Metheney, P.D., Reyes, H., Krueger, W.H., Sibbett, G.S., 2002. Effects of foliar application of urea on olive leaf nitrogen, growth and yield. Acta Horticulturae 586, 251-254.
  9. Erel, R., Day, A., Ben-Gal, A., Schwartz, A., Yermiyahu, U., 2008. Flowering and fruit set of olive trees in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 133, 639-647.
  10. Erel, R., Kerem, Z., Ben-Gal, A., Dag, A., Schwartz, A., Zipori, I., Basheer, L., Yermiyahu, I., 2013. Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61, 11261-11272.
  11. Fernández, J.E., 2014. Understanding olive adaptation to abiotic stresses as a tool to increase crop performance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 103, 158-179.
  12. Fernández, J.E., Moreno, F., Cabrera, F., Arrue, J.L., Martín-Aranda, J., 1991. Drip irrigation, soil characteristics and the root distribution and root activity of olive trees. Plant and Soil 133, 239-251.
  13. Fernández-Escobar, R., 2011. Use and abuse of nitrogen in olive fertilization. Acta Horticulturae 888, 249-258.
  14. Fernández-Escobar, R., Beltrán, G., Sánchez-Zamora, M.A., García-Novelo, J., Aguilera, M.P., Uceda, M., 2006. Olive oil quality decreases with nitrogen over-fertilization. HortScience 41, 215-219.
  15. Fernández-Escobar, R., Marin, L., Sánchez-Zamora, M.A., García-Novelo, J.M., Molina- Soria, C., Parra, M.A., 2009. Long-term effects of N fertilization on cropping and growth of olive trees and on N accumulation in soil profile. European Journal of Agronomy 31, 223-232.
  16. Fernández-Escobar, R., García-Novelo, J., Restrepo-Díaz, H., 2011. Scientia Horticulturae 127, 452-454. Nutrient removal from olive trees by fruit yield and pruning. HortScience 50, 474-478.
  17. Fernández-Escobar, R., Antonaya-Baena, M.F., Sánchez-Zamora, M.A., Molina-Soria, C., 2014. The amount of nitrogen applied and nutritional status of olive plants affect nitrogen uptake efficiency. Scientia Horticulturae 167, 1-4.
  18. Fernández-Escobar, R., Sánchez-Zamora, M.A., García-Novelo, J.M., Molina-Soria, C., 2015. Nutrient removal from olive trees by fruit yield and pruning. HortScience 50, 474- 478.
  19. Fichtner, E., Lovatt, C., 2013. Research advances on mitigation of alternate bearing in olive. Topics in Subtropics, February 8, 2013.
  20. Freeman, M., Uriu, K., Hartmann, H.T., 2005. Diagnosing and correcting nutrient problems. In: Sibbett, G.S., Ferguson, L., (Ed.). Olive Production Manual- 2nd Edition. University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources Publication 3353. p. 83-92.
  21. Gómez-Muñoz, B., Hinojosa, M.B., García- Ruiz, R., 2015. In situ net N mineralisation and nitrification under organic and conventionally managed olive oil orchards. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 101, 223-239.
  22. Hartmann, H.T., 1950. Olive flower bud formation. California Agriculture 4(11), 4-16.
  23. Hartmann, H.T., 1958. Nitrogen fertilizers on olive. California Agriculture 12(12), 6-7.
  24. Hartmann, H.T., Brown, J.G., 1953. The effect of certain mineral deficiencies on the growth, leaf appearance, and mineral content of young olive trees. Hilgardia 22(3), 119-130.
  25. Klein, I., Weinbaum, S.A., 1985. Foliar application of urea to almond and olive: Leaf retention and kinetics of uptake. Journal of Plant Nutrition 8, 117-129.
  26. Morales-Sillero, A., Jiménez, R., Fernández, J.E., Troncoso, A., Beltrán, G., 2007. Influence of fertigation in 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' olive oil quality. HortScience 42, 1157-1162.
  27. Niederholzer, F.J.A., 2013. Efficient nitrogen management in prune production. Sacramento Valley Regional Prune Newsletter, April, 2013.
  28. Olive Oil Source: Frost prevention.
  29. Ordóñez-Fernández, R., Repullo-Ruibérriz de Torres, M.A., Román-Vázquez, J., González-Fernández, P., Carbonell-Bojollo, R., 2015. Macronutrients released during the decomposition of pruning residues used as plant cover and their effect on soil fertility. Journal of Agricultural Science 153, 615-630.
  30. Perica, S., 2001. Seasonal fluctuation and intracanopy variation in leaf nitrogen level in olive. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24, 779-787.
  31. Perica, S., Androulakis, I.I., Loupassaki, M.H., 1994. Effect of summer application of nitrogen and potassium on mineral composition of olive leaves. Acta Horticulturae 356, 221-224.
  32. Rodrigues, M.Â., Ferreira, I.Q., Claro, A.M., Arrobas, M., 2012. Fertilizer recommendations for olive based upon nutrients removed in crop and pruning. Scientia Horticulturae 142, 205-211.
  33. Rosecrance, R.C., Krueger, W.H. Total fruit nutrient removal calculator for olive in California.
  34. Rufat, J., Villar, J.M., Pascual, M., Falguera, V., Arbonés, A., 2014. Productive and vegetative response to different irrigation and fertilization strategies of an Arbequina olive orchard grown under super-intensive conditions. Agricultural Water Management 144, 33-41.
  35. Searles, P.S., Saravia, D.A., Rousseaux, M.C., 2009. Root length density and soil water distribution in drip irrigated olive orchards in Argentina under arid conditions. Crop & Pasture Science 60, 280-288.
  36. Sibbett, G.S., 1994. Pruning mature bearing olive trees. In: Sibbett, G.S., Ferguson, L., (Ed.). Olive Production Manual- 1st Ed. University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources Publication 3353. p. 57-60.
  37. Sibbett, G.S., 2000. Nitrogen fertilization. In: UCCE Olive Notes, February 2000.
  38. Sibbett, G.S., Ferguson, L., 2002. Nitrogen, boron, and potassium dynamic in "on" vs "off" cropped Manzanillo olive trees in California, USA. Acta Horticulturae 586, 369-373.
  39. Sibbett, G.S., Ferguson, L., Fichtner, E., 2013. Best practices for growers.
  40. Toscano, P., Godino, G., Belfiore, T., Briccoli-Bati, C., 2002. Foliar fertilization: a valid alternative for olive cultivar. Acta Horticulturae 594, 191-195.
  41. Vossen, P.M., 2003a. Fertilizing olive trees.
  42. Vossen, P.M., 2003b. Planting olive trees.
  43. Vossen, P.M. 2007. Current opportunities in the California olive oil industry. Proceedings of the 2007 Plant and Soil Conference of the California Chapter of the American Society of Agronomy. February 6 and 7. Radisson Hotel, Sacramento, California. pp. 157-167.
  44. Xiloyannis, C., Celano, G., Palese, A.M., Dichio, B., Nuzzo, V., 2002. Mineral nutrient uptake from the soil in irrigated olive trees, cultivar Coratina, over six years after planting. Acta Horticulturae 586, 453-456.
  45. Yermiyahu, U., Erel., R., Ben-Gal, A., Schwartz, A., Dag, A., 2009. The role of macro-nutrients in olive tree flowering and fruit set. Proceedings of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium XVI, UC Davis.

Phosphorus

  1. Barranco, D., Ercan, H., Muñoz-Díaz, C., Belaj, A., Arquero, O., 2010. Factors influencing the efficiency of foliar sprays of monopotassium phosphate in the olive. International Journal of Plant Production 4, 235-240.
  2. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
  3. Bustan, A., Avni, A., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Riov, J., Erel, R., Zipori, I., Dag, A., 2013. Interactions between fruit load and macroelement concentrations in fertigated olive (Olea europaea L.) trees under arid saline conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 152, 44-55.
  4. Connell, J., Vossen, P.M., 2006. Fertility management for oil olives. First Press 1(3), 1-2.
  5. Erel, R., Yermiyahu, U., Van Opstal, J., Ben-Gal, A., Schwartz, A., Dag, A., 2013. The importance of olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nutritional status on its productivity. Scientia Horticulturae 159, 8- 18.
  6. Fernández, J.E., Moreno, F., Cabrera, F., Arrue, J.L., Martín-Aranda, J., 1991. Drip irrigation, soil characteristics and the root distribution and root activity of olive trees. Plant and Soil 133, 239-251.
  7. Fernández-Escobar, R., Sánchez-Zamora, M.A., García-Novelo, J.M., Molina-Soria, C., 2015. The amount of nitrogen applied and nutritional status of olive plants affect nitrogen uptake efficiency. Scientia Horticulturae 167, 1-4.
  8. Freeman, M., Uriu, K., Hartmann, H.T., 2005. Diagnosing and correcting nutrient problems. In: Sibbett, G.S., Ferguson, L., (Ed.). Olive Production Manual 2nd Edition. University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources Publication 3353. p. 83-92.
  9. Fulton, A., 2010. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 2 - NPK.
  10. Hartmann, H.T., Brown, J.G., 1953. The effect of certain mineral deficiencies on the growth, leaf appearance, and mineral content of young olive trees. Hilgardia 22(3), 119-130.
  11. Olive Oil Source: Fertilizers and amendments.
  12. Olive Oil Source: Soil and water analysis.
  13. Ordóñez-Fernández, R., Repullo-Ruibérriz de Torres, M.A., Román-Vázquez, J., González-Fernández, P., Carbonell-Bojollo, R., 2015. Macronutrients released during the decomposition of pruning residues used as plant cover and their effect on soil fertility. Journal of Agricultural Science 153, 615-630.
  14. Perica, S., 2001. Seasonal fluctuation and intracanopy variation in leaf nitrogen level in olive. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24, 779-787.
  15. Rodrigues, M.Â., Ferreira, I.Q., Claro, A.M., Arrobas, M., 2012. Fertilizer recommendations for olive based upon nutrients removed in crop and pruning. Scientia Horticulturae 142, 205-211.
  16. Rosecrance, R.C., Krueger, W.H. Total fruit nutrient removal calculator for olive in California.
  17. Sanzani, S.M., Schena, L., Nigro, F., Sergeeva, V., Ippolito, A., Salerno, M.G., 2012. Abiotic diseases of olive. Journal of Plant Pathology 94, 469-491.
  18. Searles, P.S., Saravia, D.A., Rousseaux, M.C., 2009. Root length density and soil water distribution in drip irrigated olive orchards in Argentina under arid conditions. Crop & Pasture Science 60, 280-288.
  19. Xiloyannis, C., Celano, G., Palese, A.M., Dichio, B., Nuzzo, V., 2002. Mineral nutrient uptake from the soil in irrigated olive trees, cultivar Coratina, over six years after planting. Acta Horticulturae 586, 453-456.
  20. Yermiyahu, U., Erel., R., Ben-Gal, A., Schwartz, A., Dag, A., 2009. The role of macro-nutrients in olive tree flowering and fruit set. Proceedings of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium XVI, UC Davis.

Potassium

  1. Arquero, O., Barranco, D., Benlloch, M., 2006. Potassium starvation increases stomatal conductance in olive trees. HortScience 41, 433-436.
  2. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
  3. Birger, R., Abd-ElHadi, F., Ronen, A., Cohe, E., Ankorion, Y., Najjar, A., 2008. Increasing fruit size in table olives. Acta Horticulturae 791, 249-256.
  4. Bustan, A., Avni, A., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Riov, J., Erel, R., Zipori, I., Dag, A., 2013. Interactions between fruit load and macroelement concentrations in fertigated olive (Olea europaea L.) trees under arid saline conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 152, 44-55.
  5. Charfi-Masmoudi, C., Ben Mechlia, N., 2009. Mineral uptakes of macro-nutrients in Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards during the first years after plantation. Advances in Horticultural Science 2009, 211-218.
  6. Connell, J., 2011. Olive mineral nutrition.
  7. Connell, J., Vossen, P.M., 2006. Fertility management for oil olives. First Press 1(3), 1-2.
  8. Fernández, J.E., Moreno, F., Cabrera, F., Arrue, J.L., Martín-Aranda, J., 1991. Drip irrigation, soil characteristics and the root distribution and root activity of olive trees. Plant and Soil 133, 239-251.
  9. Fernández-Escobar, R., Sánchez-Zamora, M.A., García-Novelo, J.M., Molina-Soria, C., 2015. The amount of nitrogen applied and nutritional status of olive plants affect nitrogen uptake efficiency. Scientia Horticulturae 167, 1-4.
  10. Freeman, M., Uriu, K., Hartmann, H.T., 2005. Diagnosing and correcting nutrient problems. In: Sibbett, G.S., Ferguson, L., (Ed.). Olive Production Manual- 2nd Edition. University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources Publication 3353. p. 83-92.
  11. Hartmann, H.T., Brown, J.G., 1953. The effect of certain mineral deficiencies on the growth, leaf appearance, and mineral content of young olive trees. Hilgardia 22(3), 119-130.
  12. Hegazi, E.S., Mohamed, S.M., El-Sonbaty, M.R., Abd El-Naby, S.K.M., El-Sharony, T.F., 2011. Effect of potassium nitrate on vegetative growth, nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of olive cv. "Picual". Journal of Horticultural Science & Ornamental Plants 3, 252-258.
  13. Nieto, J., Arroyo, P., Herrera, M., Cruz, H., Colmenero, P., Guirao, M.A., Linares, R., Barbará, M., Aguilar, J.A., Menjívar, J.C., Pastor, M., 2000. Estado nutritivo de las plantaciones de olivar de la Comarca de Sierra Mágina en la provincia de Jaén. Edafología 7, 205-214.
  14. Olive Oil Source: Fertilizers and amendments.
  15. Ordóñez-Fernández, R., Repullo-Ruibérriz de Torres, M.A., Román-Vázquez, J., González-Fernández, P., Carbonell-Bojollo, R., 2015. Macronutrients released during the decomposition of pruning residues used as plant cover and their effect on soil fertility. Journal of Agricultural Science 153, 615-630.
  16. Perica, S., 2001. Seasonal fluctuation and intracanopy variation in leaf nitrogen level in olive. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24, 779-787.
  17. Restrepo-Díaz, H., Benlloch, M., Fernández-Escobar, R., 2008. Plant water stress and K+ starvation reduce absorption of foliar applied K+ by olive leaves. Scientia Horticulturae 116, 409-413.
  18. Restrepo-Díaz, H., Benlloch, M., Fernández-Escobar, R., 2009. Leaf potassium accumulation in olive plants related to nutritional K status, leaf age, and foliar application of potassium salts. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1108-1121.
  19. Rodrigues, M.Â., Ferreira, I.Q., Claro, A.M., Arrobas, M., 2012. Fertilizer recommendations for olive based upon nutrients removed in crop and pruning. Scientia Horticulturae 142, 205-211.
  20. Rosecrance, R.C., Krueger, W.H. Total fruit nutrient removal calculator for olive in California.
  21. Rufat, J., Villar, J.M., Pascual, M., Falguera, V., Arbonés, A., 2014. Productive and vegetative response to different irrigation and fertilization strategies of an Arbequina olive orchard grown under super-intensive conditions. Agricultural Water Management 144, 33-41.
  22. Searles, P.S., Saravia, D.A., Rousseaux, M.C., 2009. Root length density and soil water distribution in drip irrigated olive orchards in Argentina under arid conditions. Crop & Pasture Science 60, 280-288.
  23. Vossen, P.M., 2003. Fertilizing olive trees.
  24. Vossen, P.M. 2007. Current opportunities in the California olive oil industry. Proceedings of the 2007 Plant and Soil Conference of the California Chapter of the American Society of Agronomy. February 6 and 7. Radisson Hotel, Sacramento, California. pp. 157-167.
  25. Xiloyannis, C., Celano, G., Palese, A.M., Dichio, B., Nuzzo, V., 2002. Mineral nutrient uptake from the soil in irrigated olive trees, cultivar Coratina, over six years after planting. Acta Horticulturae 586, 453-456.

Boron

  1. Benlloch, M., Arboleda, F., Barranco, D., Fernandez-Escobar, R., 1991. Response of young olive trees to sodium and boron excess in irrigation water. HortScience 26, 867-870.
  2. Berger, K.C., 1949. Boron in soils and crops. Advances in Agronomy 1, 321-351.
  3. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
  4. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th Edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  5. Connell, J., 2011. Olive mineral nutrition.
  6. Connell, J., Vossen, P.M., 2006. Fertility management for oil olives. First Press 1(3), 1-2.
  7. Fulton, A., 2011. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 4.
  8. Freeman, M., Uriu, K., Hartmann, H.T., 2005. Diagnosing and correcting nutrient problems. In: Sibbett, G.S., Ferguson, L., (Ed.). Olive Production Manual 2nd Edition. University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources Publication 3353. p. 83-92.
  9. Larbi, A., Gargouri, K., Ayadi, M., Ben Dhiab, A., Msallem, M., 2011. Effect of foliar boron application on growth, reproduction, and oil quality of olive trees conducted under a high density planting system. Journal of Plant Nutrition 34, 2083- 2094.
  10. Perica, S., 2001. Seasonal fluctuation and intracanopy variation in leaf nitrogen level in olive. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24, 779-787.
  11. Perica, S., Brown, P.H., Connell, J.H., Nyomura, A.M.S., Dordas, C., Hu, N., 2001. Foliar boron application improves flower fertility and fruit set of olive. HortScience 36, 714-716.
  12. Sanzani, S.M., Schena, L., Nigro, F., Sergeeva, V., Ippolito, A., Salerno, M.G., 2012. Abiotic diseases of olive. Journal of Plant Pathology 94, 469-491.
  13. Spinardi, A., Bassi, D., 2012. Olive fertility as affected by cross-pollination and boron. The Scientific World Journal. doi:10.1100/2012/375631
  14. Stellacci, A.M., Caliandro, A., Mastro, M.A., Guarina, D., 2010. Effect of foliar boron application on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit set and yield. Acta Horticulturae 868, 267-272.
  15. Tsadilas, C.D., Chartzoulakis, K.S., 1999. Boron deficiency in olive trees in Greece in relation to soil boron concentration. Acta Horticulturae 474, 341-344.