The emergence of bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobials is a serious threat to animal health, human health, and the planet.1-4 Physicians, veterinarians, livestock owners, companion animal owners, and the general public all contribute in the One Health effort to fight against the development of antibiotic resistance by incorporating antimicrobial stewardship into their day-to-day activities.
Antimicrobial Stewardship Plans aim to optimize patient health and improve antimicrobial drug use in order to preserve the efficacy and ensure the availability of antimicrobials for years to come. 5-11
The comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship approach in veterinary medicine includes reducing the need for antimicrobial drugs by implementing livestock management practices that aid in the prevention of infectious disease in addition to using antimicrobial drugs selectively and responsibly to optimize animal health and minimize the risk for developing antimicrobial resistance. 9-11 The following five principles are the foundation to a successful antimicrobial stewardship plan. Based on these principles, the CDFA Antimicrobial Use & Stewardship program is working in collaboration with university and cooperative extension experts to provide scientifically-based guidelines for veterinarians and livestock owners.
Program notes are provided to update the reader on the progress the AUS program has made on the guidelines that will inform measures to mitigate antimicrobial resistance. Notes are current as of publication.
Program Note: Guidelines on VCPR Practice Models have been developed for interactions with youth agriculture groups and additional models are forthcoming. VCPR Practice Model – Youth Agriculture CDFA Informational Brochure VCPR Example – Agent Authorization This document is not required for youth agriculture participation, or to establish or maintain a VCPR. The intent of the document is to inspire creative solutions within the context of the definition of a VCPR in California. A VCPR is validated by the communications and actions between the veterinarian and the client.
Program Note: Best management practices and syndrome-specific antimicrobial stewardship guidelines will be developed for each livestock production type after information is gathered from California livestock owners in order to recommend effective, practical, and scientifically-based practices.
* Laws regarding drug use in livestock are established in order to ensure meat, poultry, dairy and eggs are safe for our families to eat and protect animal and human health. Please go to the Federal & State Policy page for more details on current laws.Guidelines for Judicious Use of Antimicrobials in Livestock These guidelines are intended to aid livestock owners and their employees responsible for animal care in responsible antibiotic use under the guidance of a veterinarian in compliance with state and federal laws. Guidelines for Veterinarians: Judicious Use of Antimicrobials in Livestock These guidelines are intended to serve as an adjunct to professional judgement. They are based on current scientific principles and state and federal laws regarding medically important antimicrobial drug use in livestock.
Program Note: For information on data gathering efforts please go to the Surveys & Studies page.
Program Note: Veterinarians are required to pursue continuing education on the judicious use of antimicrobials to renew their veterinary license with the California Veterinary Medical Board. Please go to the Federal & State Policy page for more details. Module 23: Use of Antibiotics in Animals is a training module for the National Veterinary Accreditation Program within USDA APHIS. The completion of this module counts as one credit hour of CE on the judicious use of MIADs.
Printer Friendly Version: Principles of Antimicrobial Stewardship.
- Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Animal food production. 1st ed. Rome, 2008.
- FDA. Guidance for Industry #152. Evaluating the Safety of Antimicrobial New Animal Drugs with Regard to Their Microbiological Effects on Bacteria of Human Health Concern. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/AnimalVeterinary/GuidanceComplianceEnforcement/GuidanceforIndustry/UCM052519.pdf, 2003.
- FDA. Guidance for Industry #209. The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/AnimalVeterinary/GuidanceComplianceEnforcement/GuidanceforIndustry/UCM216936.pdf, 2012.
- Weese JS, Giguère S, Guardabassi L, et al. ACVIM Consensus Statement on Therapeutic Antimicrobial Use in Animals and Antimicrobial Resistance. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2015;29:487-498.
- Barlam TF, Cosgrove SE, Abbo LM, et al. Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016;62:e51-77.
- Stenehjem E, Hyun DY, Septimus E, et al. Antibiotic Stewardship in Small Hospitals: Barriers and Potential Solutions. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017;65:691-696.
- Libertin CR, Watson SH, Tillett WL, et al. Dramatic effects of a new antimicrobial stewardship program in a rural community hospital. American Journal of Infection Control 2017;45:979-982.
- CDC. Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs. 2015. https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/healthcare/implementation/core-elements.html Accessed March 19, 2018.
- AVMA. Antimicrobial Stewardship Definition and Core Principles. 2018. https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/Antimicrobial-Stewardship-Definition-and-Core-Principles.aspx Accessed March 19, 2018.
- AABP. Key Elements for Implementing Antimicrobial Stewardship Plans in Bovine Veterinary Practices Working with Beef and Dairy Operations. 2017. http://aabp.org/resources/AABP_Guidelines/AntimicrobialStewardship-7.27.17.pdf
- Manning ML, Septimus EJ, Ashley ESD, et al. Antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention—leveraging the synergy: A position paper update. American Journal of Infection Control 2018;46:364-368.
- Morley PS, Apley MD, Besser TE, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Use in Veterinary Medicine. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2005;19:617-629.
- AVMA. Judicious Therapeutic Use of Antimicrobials. 2018. https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/Judicious-Therapeutic-Use-of-Antimicrobials.aspx Accessed March 19, 2018.
- AVMA. AABP/AVMA Judicious Therapeutic Use of Antimicrobials in Cattle. 2018. https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/AABP-Prudent-Drug-Usage-Guidelines-for-Cattle.aspx Accessed March 19, 2018.
- AVMA. American Association of Swine Veterinarians Basic Guidelines of Judicious Therapeutic Use of Antimicrobials in Pork Production. 2018. https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/AASV-Basic-Guidelines-of-Judicious-Therapeutic-Use-of-Antimicrobials-in-Pork-Production.aspx Accessed March 19, 2019.
- AVMA. AAAP-AVMA Guidelines for Judicious Therapeutic Use of Antimicrobials in Poultry. 2018. https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/AAAP-Guidelines-to-Judicious-Therapeutic-Use-of-Antimicrobials-in-Poultry.aspx Accessed March 19, 2018.
- Guidelines A. Prudent Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Cattle. 2013. http://aabp.org/resources/aabp_guidelines/AABP_Prudent_Antimicrobial_Use_Guidelines-2013.pdf
- BQA. Antibiotic Stewardship for Beef Producers https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/bqa_antibiotics_final.pdf Accessed March 19, 2018.
- Board NP. Pork Industry Guide to Responsible Antibiotic Use. 2016. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%204/1%20AntibioticsBooklet.pdf Accessed March 19, 2018.
- FDA. Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act. 21 FCR 530. USA: https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=054808d261de27898e02fb175b7c9ff9&node=21:220.127.116.11.16&rgn=div5, 1994.