California Fertilization Guidelines

UC Davis
A collaboration between CDFA, FREP and UC Davis
 
N-P-K

Sunflower

The fertilization guidelines on this site have been redesigned to be compliant with AB434. The guidelines in the traditional design with the latest updates can be found on the UC Davis Nutrient Management website .

References

Nitrogen

  1. Abbadi, J., Gerendás, J., Sattelmacher, B., 2008. Effects on nitrogen supply on growth, yield and yield components of safflower and sunflower. Plant and Soil 306, 167-180.
  2. Adrianasolo F.N., Champolivier, L., Debaeke, P., Maury, P., 2016. Source and sink indicators for determining nitrogen, plant density and genotype effects on oil and protein contents in sunflower achenes. Field Crops Research 192, 33-41.
  3. Baldini, M., Vannozzi, G., Macchia, M., Turi, M., 1996. Relationship between different water and nitrogen supplies on yield and nitrogen utilisation and partitioning in sunflower. 14th International Sunflower Conference, Shenyang, China. Vol 1, 412-418.
  4. Blamey, F.P.C., Chapman, J., 1981. Protein, oil, and energy yields of sunflower as affected by N and P fertilization. Agronomy Journal 73, 583-587.
  5. Blamey, F.P.C., Edwards, D.G., Asher, C.J., 1987. Nutritional disorders of sunflower. Department of Agriculture, University of Queensland, Australia.
  6. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  7. Connor, D.J., Hall, A.J., 1997. Sunflower physiology. In: Schneiter, A.A., (Ed.). Sunflower Technology and Production. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. pp. 113-182.
  8. Darby, H., Harwood, H., Cummings, E., Madden, R., Monahan, S., 2013. 2012 sunflower population and nitrogen rate trial. University of Vermont Extension.
  9. Deibert, E.J., Utter, R.A., 1989. Sunflower growth and nutrient uptake: Response to tillage system, hybrid maturity and weed control method. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53, 133-138.
  10. Flynn, R., Ball, S.T., Baker, R.D., 1999. Sampling for plant tissue analysis . New Mexico State University Cooperative Extension Service, Guide A-123.
  11. Franzen, D., 2016. Fertilizing sunflower. North Dakota State University Extension Service SF713 (Revised).
  12. Geisseler, D., 2016. Nitrogen concentrations in harvested plant parts -A literature overview. Report to the Kings River Watershed Coalition.
  13. Geleta, S., Baltensperger, D.D., Binforn, G.D., Miller, J.F., 1996. Rate of nitrogen and phosphorus in wheat-fallow cropping system in the northern High Plains. National Sunflower Association Research Forum, 1996.
  14. Gholamhoseini, M., Ghalavand, A., Dolatabadian, A., Jamshidi, E., Khodaei-Joghan, A., 2013. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and irrigation water productivity of sunflowers grown under drought stress. Agricultural Water Management 117, 106-114.
  15. Goswami, K., Srivastava, G.C., 1987. Effect of foliar application of urea on leaf senescence and photosynthesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Photosynthetica 22, 99-104.
  16. Heard, J., Park, R., 2008. Nutrient uptake and partitioning by sunflowers in Manitoba. In Proceedings of the 2008 Manitoba Agronomist Conference.
  17. Hocking, P.J., Steer, B.T., 1983. Distribution of nitrogen during growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Annals of Botany 51, 787-799. Field Crops Research 6, 93-107.
  18. Hocking, P.J., Steer, B.T., 1995. Effects of timing and supply of nitrogen on nitrogen remobilization from vegetative organs and redistribution to developing seeds of sunflower. Plant and Soil 170, 359-370.
  19. Hussain, R.A., Ahmad, R., Mawaz, F., Ashraf, M.Y., Waraich, E.A., 2016. Foliar NK application mitigates drought effects in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 38:83.
  20. Jaafar, M.N., Stone, L.R., Goodrum, D.E., 1993. Rooting depth and dry matter development of sunflower. Agronomy Journal 85, 281-286.
  21. Jabeen, N., Ahmad, R., 2011. Foliar application of potassium nitrate affects the growth and nitrate reductase activity in sunflower and safflower leaves under salinity. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 39, 172-178.
  22. Kurvits, A., Kirkby, E.A., 1980. The uptake of nutrients by sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus) growing in a continuous flowing culture system, supplied with nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen source. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 143, 140-149.
  23. Lazicki, P.A., Geisseler, D., 2017. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops . California Agriculture, DOI: 10.3733/ca.2016a0027.
  24. Lilleboe, D., 2011. Fertilization of sunflower. Special supplement to "The Sunflower" magazine. 2/2011.
  25. Long, R., Mathesius, K., Vaccaro, B., Symmes, E., Bali, K., Gulya, T., (in preparation). Sunflower Hybrid Seed Production in California. UC ANR Publication.
  26. Lorenz, O.A., Tyler, K.B., 1976. Plant tissue analysis of vegetable crops. In: Reisenauer, H.M., (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 24-29.
  27. Mathers, A.C., Stewart, B.A., 1982. Sunflower nutrient uptake, growth, and yield as affected by nitrogen or manure, and plant population. Agronomy Journal 74, 911-915.
  28. Merrill, S.D., Tanaka, D.L., Hanson, J.D., 2002. Root length growth of eight crop species in Haplustoll soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 913-923.
  29. Mullaly, S., 2011. Soil testing: key considerations. The Sunflower Magazine, 2/1/2011.
  30. Narem, R.A., 1982. Nitrogen fertility requirements, dry matter production and nutrient uptake of sunflower. M.S. thesis. South Dakota State University, Brookings.
  31. National Sunflower Association, 1996. Sidedressing 'flowers can ease time pressures of a busy spring. Sunflower Magazine, March 1, 1996.
  32. Nel, A.A., Loubser, H.L., Hammes, P.S., 2000. The yield and processing quality of sunflower seed as affected by the amount and timing of nitrogen fertiliser. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 17, 156-159.
  33. Robinson, R.G., 1973. Elemental composition and response to nitrogen of sunflower and corn. Agronomy Journal 65, 318-320.
  34. Scheiner, J.D., Gutierrez-Boem, F.H., Lavado, R.S., 2002. Sunflower nitrogen requirement and 15N fertilizer recovery in Western Pampas, Argentina. European Journal of Agronomy 17, 73-79.
  35. Schneekloth, J.P., 2010. Nitrogen response of irrigated sunflowers, 2007. National Sunflower Association Research Forum Paper.
  36. Steer, B.T., Hocking, P.J., 1983. Leaf and floret production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as affected by nitrogen supply. Annals of Botany 52, 267-277.
  37. Steer, B.T., Coaldrake, P.D., Pearson, C.J., Canty, C.P., 1986. Effects of nitrogen supply and population density on plant development and yield components of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Field Crops Research 13, 99-115.
  38. Strasser, B., Werner, W., 1995. Einfluss von Form und Plazierung der N- und P-Düngung auf Wurzelentwicklung, Phosphat-Aufnahme und Wachstum von Sonnenblumen (Helianthus annuus) und Zuckerhirsen (Sorghum bicolor). Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science 175, 157-165.
  39. Tahir, M., Khaliq, A., Waseem, M., Ali, A., Tanveer, A., Iqbal, A., Atta Ullah Mohsin, H., Khan, M.A., 2011. Influence of different nitrogen application methods and sowing techniques on sunflower hybrid. Legume Research 34, 90-97.
  40. Vigil, M.F., Benjamin, J., Schepers, J., 2001. Yield response and fertilizer nitrogen recovery by dryland sunflowers in a no-till rotation. National Sunflower Association Research Forum Paper.
  41. Vigil, M.F., Hergert, G.W., Mengel, D.B., 2009. Nutrient management. In: Meyer, R., (Ed.). High Plains Sunflower Production Handbook. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service MF-2384.
  42. Wan, P.J., Baker, G.W., Clark, S.P., Matlock, S.W.,1979. Characteristics of sunflower seed and meal. Cereal Chemistry 56, 352-355.

Phosphorus

  1. Abbadi, J., Gerendás, J., 2011. Effects of phosphorus supply on growth, yield, and yield components of safflower and sunflower. Journal of Plant Nutrition 34, 1769-1787.
  2. Abbadi, J., Gerendás, J., 2015. Phosphorus use efficiency of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition 38, 1121-1142.
  3. Ammanullah, Khan, M.W., 2010. Interactive effects of potassium and phosphorus on phenology and grain yield of sunflower in northwest Pakistan. Pedosphere 20, 674-680.
  4. Blamey, F.P.C., Chapman, J., 1981. Protein, oil, and energy yields of sunflower as affected by N and P fertilization. Agronomy Journal 73, 583-587.
  5. Blamey, F.P.C., Edwards, D.G., Asher, C.J., 1987. Nutritional disorders of sunflower. Department of Agriculture, University of Queensland, Australia.
  6. Blamey, F.P.C., Zollinger, R.K., Schneiter, A.A., 1997. Sunflower production and culture. In: Schneiter, A.A., (Ed.). Sunflower Technology and Production. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. pp. 595-670.
  7. Bryla, D.R., 2011. Application of the '4R' nutrient stewardship concept to horticultural crops: getting nutrients in the 'right' place. HortTechnology 21, 674-682.
  8. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  9. Franzen, D., 2016. Fertilizing sunflower. North Dakota State University Extension Service SF713 (Revised).
  10. Franzen, D.W., Schultz, E.C., Graham, C., Endres, G., Sharma, L.K., 2015. Nitrogen and phosphorus recalibration for sunflower.
  11. Flynn, R., Ball, S.T., Baker, R.D., 1999. Sampling for plant tissue analysis. New Mexico State University Cooperative Extension Service, Guide A-123.
  12. Geisseler, D., Miyao, G., 2016. Soil testing for P and K has value in nutrient management for annual crops. California Agriculture 70(3), 152-159.
  13. Grunes, D.L., 1959. Effect of nitrogen on the availability of soil and fertilizer phosphorus to plants. Advances in Agronomy 11, 369-396.
  14. Heard, J., Park, R., 2008. Nutrient uptake and partitioning by sunflowers in Manitoba. In Proceedings of the 2008 Manitoba Agronomist Conference.
  15. Hibberd, D.E., Want, P.S., Hunter, M.N., Standley, J., Moody, P.W., Blight, G.W., 1991. Marginal responses over six years by sorghum and sunflower to broadcast and banded phosphorus on a low P Vertisol, and changes in extractable soil phosphorus. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 31, 99-106.
  16. Jaafar, M.N., Stone, L.R., Goodrum, D.E., 1993. Rooting depth and dry matter development of sunflower. Agronomy Journal 85, 281-286.
  17. Lazicki, P.A., Geisseler, D., 2017. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops . California Agriculture, DOI: 10.3733/ca.2016a0027.
  18. Lewis, D.C., Potter, T.D., Weckert, S.E., 1991. The effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer applications on the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on sandy soils and the prediction of phosphorus and potassium responses by soil tests. Fertilizer Research 28, 185-190.
  19. Lilleboe, D., 2011. Fertilization of sunflower. Special supplement to "The Sunflower" magazine. 2/2011.
  20. Long, R., Mathesius, K., Vaccaro, B., Symmes, E., Bali, K., Gulya, T., (in preparation). Sunflower Hybrid Seed Production in California. UC ANR Publication.
  21. Lorenz, O.A., Tyler, K.B., 1976. Plant tissue analysis of vegetable crops. In: Reisenauer, H.M., (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 24-29.
  22. Lopez-Bucio, J., Cruz-Ramirez, A., Herrera- Estrella, L., 2003. The role of nutrient availability in regulating root architecture. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6, 280-287.
  23. Merrill, S.D., Tanaka, D.L., Hanson, J.D., 2002. Root length growth of eight crop species in Haplustoll soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 913-923.
  24. Narem, R.A., 1982. Nitrogen fertility requirements, dry matter production and nutrient uptake of sunflower. M.S. thesis. South Dakota State University, Brookings.
  25. Shaver, T.M., Hergert, G.W., Binford, G.D., Blumenthal, J.M., 2014. Sunflower. In: Shaver, T.M., (Ed.). Nutrient Management for Agronomic Crops in Nebraska. University of Nebraska Extension Circular 155, 127-130.
  26. Stone, L.R., Goodrum, D.E., Schlegel, A.J., Jaafar, M.N., Khan, A.H., 2002. Water depletion depth of grain sorghum and sunflower in the central High Plains. Agronomy Journal 94, 936-943.
  27. Strasser, B., Werner, W., 1995. Einfluss von Form und Plazierung der N- und P-Düngung auf Wurzelentwicklung, Phosphat-Aufnahme und Wachstum von Sonnenblumen (Helianthus annuus) und Zuckerhirsen (Sorghum bicolor). Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science 175, 157-165.
  28. Vigil, M.F., Hergert, G.W., Mengel, D.B., 2009. Nutrient management. In: Meyer, R., (Ed.). High Plains Sunflower Production Handbook. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service MF-2384.

Potassium

  1. Abbadi, J., Gerendás, J., Sattelmacher, B., 2008. Effects of potassium supply on growth and yield of safflower as compared to sunflower. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 2008, 272-280.
  2. Akram, M.S., Ashraf, M., Akram N.A., 2009a. Effectiveness of potassium sulfate in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects on different physio- biochemical attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Flora 204, 471-483.
  3. Akram, M.S., Ashraf, M., Shabhaz, M., Akram N.A., 2009b. Growth and photosynthesis of salt- stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants as affected by foliar-applied different potassium salts. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 172, 884-893.
  4. Bailey, L.D., Soper, R.J., 1985. Potassium nutrition of rape, flax, sunflower and safflower. In: Munson, R.D., (Ed.) Potassium in Agriculture. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 765-798.
  5. Blamey, F.P.C., Edwards, D.G., Asher, C.J., 1987. Nutritional disorders of sunflower. Department of Agriculture, University of Queensland, Australia.
  6. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  7. Deibert, E.J., Utter, R.A., 1989. Sunflower growth and nutrient uptake: Response to tillage system, hybrid maturity and weed control method. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53, 133-138.
  8. Flynn, R., Ball, S.T., Baker, R.D., 1999. Sampling for plant tissue analysis. New Mexico State University Cooperative Extension Service, Guide A-123.
  9. Franzen, D., 2016. Fertilizing sunflower. North Dakota State University Extension Service SF713 (Revised).
  10. Geisseler, D., Miyao, G., 2016. Soil testing for P and K has value in nutrient management for annual crops. California Agriculture 70(3), 152-159.
  11. Gholamhoseini, M., Ghalavand, A., Dolatabadian, A., Jamshidi, E., Khodaei-Joghan, A., 2013. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and irrigation water productivity of sunflowers grown under drought stress. Agricultural Water Management 117, 106-114.
  12. Hussain, R.A., Ahmad, R., Mawaz, F., Ashraf, M.Y., Waraich, E.A., 2016. Foliar NK application mitigates drought effects in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 38:83.
  13. Jaafar, M.N., Stone, L.R., Goodrum, D.E., 1993. Rooting depth and dry matter development of sunflower. Agronomy Journal 85, 281-286.
  14. Jabeen, N., Ahmad, R., 2011. Foliar application of potassium nitrate affects the growth and nitrate reductase activity in sunflower and safflower leaves under salinity. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 39, 172-178.
  15. Lewis, D.C., Potter, T.D., Weckert, S.E., 1991. The effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer applications on the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on sandy soils and the prediction of phosphorus and potassium responses by soil tests. Fertilizer Research 28, 185-190.
  16. Lindhauer, M.G., 1985. Influence of K nutrition and drought on water relations and growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 148, 654-669.
  17. Lorenz, O.A., Tyler, K.B., 1976. Plant tissue analysis of vegetable crops. In: Reisenauer, H.M., (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 24-29.
  18. Mathers, A.C., Stewart, B.A., 1982. Sunflower nutrient uptake, growth, and yield as affected by nitrogen or manure, and plant population. Agronomy Journal 74, 911-915.
  19. Merrill, S.D., Tanaka, D.L., Hanson, J.D., 2002. Root length growth of eight crop species in Haplustoll soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 913-923.
  20. Narem, R.A., 1982. Nitrogen fertility requirements, dry matter production and nutrient uptake of sunflower. M.S. thesis. South Dakota State University, Brookings.
  21. Robinson, R.G., 1973. Elemental composition and response to nitrogen of sunflower and corn. Agronomy Journal 65, 318-320.
  22. Spear, S.N., Asher, C.J., Edwards, D.G., 1978. Response of cassava, sunflower, and maize to potassium concentration in solution I. Growth and plant potassium concentration. Field Crops Research 1, 347-361.
  23. Stone, L.R., Goodrum, D.E., Schlegel, A.J., Jaafar, M.N., Khan, A.H., 2002. Water depletion depth of grain sorghum and sunflower in the central High Plains. Agronomy Journal 94, 936-943.
  24. Vigil, M.F., Hergert, G.W., Mengel, D.B., 2009. Nutrient management. In: Meyer, R., (Ed.). High Plains Sunflower Production Handbook. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service MF-2384.