California Fertilization Guidelines

UC Davis
A collaboration between CDFA, FREP and UC Davis
 
N-P-K

Prune and Plum

The fertilization guidelines on this site have been redesigned to be compliant with AB434. The guidelines in the traditional design with the latest updates can be found on the UC Davis Nutrient Management website .

References

Nitrogen

  1. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
  2. Bondada, B.R., Syvertsen, J.P., Albrigo, L.G., 2001. Urea nitrogen uptake by citrus leaves. HortScience 36, 1061-1065.
  3. Brown, P.H., Muhammad, S., Saa Silva, S., 2012a. Update 2012: Fertigation trials in almond.
  4. Brown, P.H., Saa Silva, S., Muhammad, S., 2012b.Development of leaf sampling interpretation methods for almond and development of a nutrient budget approach to fertilizer management in almond. Almond Board of California Final Research Report.
  5. Brown, P.H. Niederholzer, F., Sepulveda R., 2014. Development of nutrient management tools for prunes. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  6. Buchner, R.P., 2013. Nitrogen management for French prune. Sacramento Valley Regional Prune Notes, February 2013.
  7. Day, K.R., Johnson, R.S., Crisosto, C., DeJong, T., Klassen, K., Banuelos, G., 2002. Plum nutrition studies. California Tree Fruit Agreement Research Report.
  8. Day, K.R., Buchner, R.P., 2012. Growing prunes for the fresh market. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 279-282.
  9. Doll, D., 2011. Fertilizing young almond trees – a few tips.
  10. Fulton, A.E., Sanden, B.L., 2012. Managing salinity in soils and water. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 43-62.
  11. Holtz, B., 2010. Fertilizing one-year old trees – Be careful!
  12. Johnson, R.S., Uriu, K., 1989. Mineral nutrition. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp. 68-81.
  13. Krueger, W., 2006. Summer nutrition and leaf sampling. Yolo-Solano Counties Fruit and Nut Notes, May 2006.
  14. Kreuger, W., 2008. Considerations for in-season nutrition of prunes. Sacramento Valley Prune News, March 2008.
  15. LaRue,J.H., 1989. Establishing the orchard. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp. 21-30.
  16. LaRue, J.H., Gerdts, M., 1973. Growing plums in California. California Experiment Station Extension Service, Circular 563.
  17. Leece, D.R., Dirou, J.F., 1977. Organosilicone and alginate adjuvants evaluated in urea sprays foliar-applied to prune trees. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 8, 169-176.
  18. Leece, D.R., Dirou, J.F., 1979. Comparison of urea foliar sprays containing hydrocarbon or silicone surfactants with soil-appled nitrogen in maintaining the leaf nitrogen concentration of prune trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 105, 644-648.
  19. Liu, G., Williamson, J., 2013. What is urea-triazone nitrogen? University of Florida IFAS Extension Publication HS1233
  20. Niederholzer, F.J.A., 2007. Improving the nutrient efficiency of tree crops. California Plant and Soil Conference 2007, February 6&7, 2007, Sacramento.
  21. Niederholzer, F.J.A., 2011. Using urea efficiently. Glenn County Orchard Facts, April, 2011.
  22. Niederholzer, F., 2012. Nitrogen use efficiency in almonds. Sacramento Valley Almond News, April 2012.
  23. Niederholzer, F.J.A., 2013. Efficient nitrogen management in prune production. Sacramento Valley Regional Prune Newsletter, April, 2013.
  24. Niederholzer, F.J.A., 2014. Prune orchard fertility review. Glenn County Orchard Facts, January 2014.
  25. Niederholzer, F.J.A., Buchner, R.P., Southwick, S.M., 2012. Nutrition and fertilization. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 151- 168.
  26. Olson, W., Andris, H., Buchner, R., Holtz, B., Klonsky, K., Krueger, W., Walton, J., 2004. Integrated prune farming practices (I.P.F.P.)- 2004. A six year summary. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  27. Olson, W., Ramos, D., Yeager, J., Uriu, K., Pearson, J., 1982. Efficient nitrogen application timing in prune production. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  28. Olson, W., Uriu, K., Sibbett, S., Krueger, W., Weakley, C., 1986. Verification of field nitrogen timing trial results- 1986 prune nitrogen survey. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  29. Sibbett, G.S., Southwick, S., 1993. Comparison of foliar vs soil applied nitrogen for maintaining its sufficiency in French prune. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  30. Sibbett, G.S., Southwick, S., Yeager, J., 1991. Effect of foliar applied urea on percent leaf N and fruit size of French prune. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  31. Southwick, S.M., Rupert, M.E., Yeager, J.T., Weis, K.G., DeJong, T., Shackel, K., Bonin, A., 1996. Nitrogen fertigation of young prune trees and effects on horticultural performance: 1996 Final report. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  32. Southwick, S.M., Rupert, M.E., Yeager, J.T., Lampinen, B.D., DeJong, T.M., Weis, K.G., 1999. Effects of nitrogen fertigation on fruit yield and quality of young 'French' prune trees. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 74, 187-195.
  33. Uriu, K., 1981. Soil and plant analysis and symptomology for diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and toxicities. In: Ramos, D.E., (Ed.). Prune Orchard Management. University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences Special Publication 3269. pp. 89-97.
  34. Weinbaum, S.A., 1978. Feasibility of satisfying total nitrogen requirement of non-bearing prune trees with foliar nitrate. Hortscience 13, 52-53.
  35. Weinbaum, S.A., Merwin, M.L., Muraoka, T.T., 1978. Seasonal variation in nitrate uptake efficiency and distribution of absorbed nitrogen in non-bearing prune trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 103, 516-519.
  36. Weinbaum, S.A., Brown, P.H., Johnson, R.S., 2002. Application of selected macronutrients (N,K) in deciduous orchards: physiological and agrotechnical perspectives. Acta Horticulturae 594, 59-64.
  37. Weinbaum, S.A., Niederholzer, F.J.A., Ponchner, S., Rosecrance, R.C., Carlson, R.M., Whittlesey, A.C., Muraoka, T.T., 1994. Nutrient uptake by cropping and defruited field-grown 'French' prune trees. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 119, 925-930.
  38. Zasoski, R.J., 1994. Nitrogen efficiency in drip irrigated almonds.FREP Final Report.

Phosphorus

  1. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
  2. Brown, P.H. Niederholzer, F., Sepulveda R., 2014. Development of nutrient management tools for prunes. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  3. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  4. Doll, D., 2011. Fertilizing young almond trees – a few tips.
  5. Johnson, R.S., Uriu, K., 1989. Mineral nutrition. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S.(Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp. 68-81.
  6. Krueger, W., 2006. Summer nutrition and leaf sampling. Yolo-Solano Counties Fruit and Nut Notes, May 2006.
  7. Fulton, A., 2010. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 2 – NPK.
  8. Fulton, A.E., Sanden, B.L., 2012. Managing salinity in soils and water. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 43-62.
  9. Niederholzer, F.J.A., Buchner, R.P., Southwick, S.M., 2012. Nutrition and fertilization. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 151-168.
  10. Olson, W., Andris, H., Buchner, R., Holtz, B., Klonsky, K., Krueger, W., Walton, J., 2004. Integrated prune farming practices (I.P.F.P.)- 2004. A six year summary. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  11. Shear, C.B., Faust, M., 1980. Nutritional ranges in deciduous tree fruits and nuts. In: Janick, J. (Ed.). Horticultural Reviews. The AVI Publishing Company, Inc.
  12. Southwick, S.M., Rupert, M.E., Yeager, J.T., Weis, K.G., DeJong, T., Shackel, K., Bonin, A., 1996. Nitrogen fertigation of young prune trees and effects on horticultural performance: 1996 Final report. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  13. Strand, L.L., 1999. Integrated Pest Management for Stone Fruits. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3389.
  14. Uriu, K., 1981. Soil and plant analysis and symptomology for diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and toxicities. In: Ramos, D.E., (Ed.). Prune Orchard Management. University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences Special Publication 3269. pp. 89-97.
  15. Vercambre, G., Pagès, L., Doussan, C., Habib, R., 2003. Architectural analysis and synthesis of plum tree root system in an orchard using a quantitative modelling approach. Plant and Soil 251, 1-11.

Potassium

  1. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
  2. Brown, P.H. Niederholzer, F., Sepulveda R., 2014. Development of nutrient management tools for prunes. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  3. Buchner, R.P., Olson, W.H., Niederholzer, F.J.A., Reil, W.O., Krueger, W.H., Fulton, A.E., 2012. Prune production calendar of operations in the Sacramento Valley. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 297.
  4. Carlson, R.M., Buchanan, J.R., Kapustka, T.E., Uriu, K., 1974. Displacement of fertilizer potassium in soil columns with gypsum. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 99, 221-222.
  5. Day, K.R., Buchner, R.P., 2012. Growing prunes for the fresh market. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 279-282.
  6. DeBuse, C., 2012. Prune orchard nutrition. Sutter-Yuba Counties Pomology Notes, November 2012.
  7. DeBuse, C., Niederholzer, F.J.A., 2011. In-season potassium fertilization options for prunes. Glenn County Orchard Facts, April, 2011.
  8. DeVay, J.E., Gerdts, M., English, H., Lukezic., F.L., 1974. Controlling cytospora canker in President plum orchards of California. California Agriculture 28, 12-14.
  9. Doll, D., 2011. Fertilizing young almond trees – a few tips.
  10. Doll, D., 2014. Almond orchard nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Presented at the South San Joaquin Valley Almond Symposium, 5/29/2014.
  11. Fulton, A., 2010. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 2 – NPK.
  12. Fulton, A.E., Sanden, B.L., 2012. Managing salinity in soils and water. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 43-62.
  13. Ghanem, M., Ben Mimoun, M., 2010. Effect of potassium foliar spray on two plum trees cultivars: 'Strival' and 'Black Star'. Acta Horticulturae 874, 83-90.
  14. Hoagland, D.R., Chandler, W.H., 1932. Some effects of deficiencies of phosphate and potassium on the growth and composition of fruit trees, under controlled conditions. Proceedings of the American Horticultural Society 29, 267-271.
  15. Johnson, R.S., Uriu, K., 1989. Mineral nutrition. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp. 68-81.
  16. Krueger, W., 2006. Summer nutrition and leaf sampling. Yolo-Solano Counties Fruit and Nut Notes, May 2006.
  17. Krueger, W. 2009. Steps for producing large prunes. Western Farm Press, May 2009.
  18. LaRue, J.H., Gerdts, M., 1973. Growing plums in California. California Experiment Station Extension Service, Circular 563.
  19. Lilleland, O., 1932. Experiments in K and P deficiencies with fruit trees in the field. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 29, 272-276.
  20. Niederholzer, F.J.A., 2014. Prune orchard fertility review. Glenn County Orchard Facts, January 2014.
  21. Niederholzer, F.J.A., Buchner, R.P., Southwick, S.M., 2012. Nutrition and fertilization. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 151-168.
  22. Olson, W.H, Uriu., K., Carlson, R.M., Krueger, W.H., Pearson,J., 1987. Correcting potassium deficiency in prune trees is profitable. California Agriculture 41, 20-21.
  23. Olson, W., Andris, H., Buchner, R., Holtz, B., Klonsky, K., Krueger, W., Walton, J., 2004. Integrated prune farming practices (I.P.F.P.)- 2004. A six year summary. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  24. Pope, K., 2014. Potassium nutrition- maintaining optimum levels by replacing what you've lost. Glenn County Orchard Facts, October 2014.
  25. Shear, C.B., Faust, M., 1980. Nutritional ranges in deciduous tree fruits and nuts. In: Janick, J. (Ed.). Horticultural Reviews. The AVI Publishing Company, Inc.
  26. Strand, L.L., 1999. Integrated Pest Management for Stone Fruits. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3389.
  27. Southwick, S.M., Olson, W., Yeager J., Weis, K.G., 1996a. Optimum timing of potassium nitrate spray applications to 'French' prune trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 121, 326-333.
  28. Southwick, S.M., Rupert, M.E., Yeager, J.T., Weis, K.G., DeJong, T., Shackel, K., Bonin, A., 1996b. Nitrogen fertigation of young prune trees and effects on horticultural performance: 1996 Final report. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  29. Uriu, K., Carlson, R.M., Henderson, D.W., Shulbach, H., Aldrich, T.M., 1980. Potassium fertilization of prune trees under drip irrigation. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science105, 508-510.
  30. Uriu, K., 1981. Soil and plant analysis and symptomology for diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and toxicities. In: Ramos, D.E., (Ed.). Prune Orchard Management. University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences Special Publication 3269. pp. 89-97.
  31. Vercambre, G., Pagès, L., Doussan, C., Habib, R., 2003. Architectural analysis and synthesis of plum tree root system in an orchard using a quantitative modelling approach. Plant and Soil 251, 1-11.
  32. Weinbaum, S.A., Niederholzer, F.J.A., Ponchner, S., Rosecrance, R.C., Carlson, R.M., Whittlesey, A.C., Muraoka, T.T., 1994. Nutrient uptake by cropping and defruited field-grown 'French' prune trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119, 925-930.

Zinc

  1. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th Ed. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  2. Connell, J., 2013. Prune tissue sampling for leaf analysis. Sacramento Valley Regional Prune Newsletter, April, 2013.
  3. DeBuse, C., 2012. Prune orchard nutrition. Sutter-Yuba Counties Pomology Notes, November 2012.
  4. Johnson, R.S., Crisosto, C., Andris, H., Day, K., Holtz, B., Beede, B., Klassen, K., 2003. The effect of nutrient deficiencies on stone fruit production and quality. FREP Final Report.
  5. Johnson, R.S., Day, K.R., 2013. Zinc Deficiency and Correction in California Plum Orchards. Acta Horticulturae 985, 189-192.
  6. Krueger, W., 2006. Summer nutrition and leaf sampling. Yolo-Solano Counties Fruit and Nut Notes, May 2006.
  7. LaRue, J.H., Gerdts, M., 1973. Growing plums in California. California Experiment Station Extension Service, Circular 563.
  8. Niederholzer, F.J.A., Buchner, R.P., Southwick, S.M., 2012. Nutrition and fertilization. In: Buchner, R.P. (Ed.). Prune Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3507. pp. 151-168.
  9. Niederholzer, F.J.A., 2014. Prune orchard fertility review. Glenn County Orchard Facts, January 2014.
  10. Olson, W., Andris, H., Buchner, R., Holtz, B., Klonsky, K., Krueger, W., Walton, J., 2004. Integrated prune farming practices (I.P.F.P.)- 2004. A six year summary. Report submitted to the California Dried Plum Board.
  11. Strand, L.L., 1999. Integrated Pest Management for Stone Fruits. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3389.
  12. Swietlik,D., 2002. Zinc Nutrition of Fruit Crops. Horttechnology 12, 45-50.
  13. Uriu, K., 1981. Soil and plant analysis and symptomology for diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and toxicities. In: Ramos, D.E., (Ed.). Prune Orchard Management. University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences Special Publication 3269. pp. 89-97.