California Fertilization Guidelines

UC Davis
A collaboration between CDFA, FREP and UC Davis
 
N-P-K

Carrots

The fertilization guidelines on this site have been redesigned to be compliant with AB434. The guidelines in the traditional design with the latest updates can be found on the UC Davis Nutrient Management website .

References

Nitrogen

  1. Bienz, D.R., 1965. Carrot splitting and second growth in central Washington as influenced by spacing, time of sidedressing and other cultural factors. American Society for Horticultural Science 86, 406-410.
  2. Bottoms, R., 2006. Nitrogen management considerations in carrots. Imperial County Agricultural Briefs, December, 2006.
  3. Bremner, J.M., Krogmeir, M.J., 1989. Evidence that the adverse effect of urea fertilizer on seed germination in soil is due to ammonia formed through hydrolysis of urea by soil urease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 86, 8185-8188.
  4. Caron, J., Rancourt, G.T., Bélec, C., Tremblay, N., Parent, L.-é., 2014. Nitrogen budget for fertilized carrot cropping systems in Quebec organic soil. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 94, 139-148.
  5. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  6. Chen, Q., Li, X., Horlacher, D., Liebig, H.-P., 2006. Effects of different nitrogen rates on open-field vegetable growth and nitrogen utilization in the North China Plain. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 35, 1725-1740.
  7. Ellison, E., Blaylock, A., Sanchez, C., Smith, R., 2013. Exploring controlled release nitrogen fertilizers for vegetable and melon crop production in California and Arizona. Proceedings of the Western Nutrient Management Conference 2013, Reno, NV. pp. 17-22.
  8. Grunes, D.L., 1959. Effect of nitrogen on the availability of soil and fertilizer phosphorus to plants. Advances in Agronomy 11, 369-396.
  9. Hanson, B., May, D., 2011. Drip irrigation salinity management for row crops. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8447.
  10. Hartz, T.K., Johnstone, P.R., Nunez, J.J., 2005. Production environment and nitrogen fertility affect carrot cracking. HortScience 40, 611-615.
  11. Hartz, T.K., Smith, R.F., Schulbach, K.F., LeStrange, M., 1994. On-farm nitrogen tests improve fertilizer efficiency, protect groundwater. California Agriculture 48(4), 29-32.
  12. Hemphill, D.D., 1982. Anticrustant effects on soil mechanical resistance and seedling emergence. HortScience 17, 391-393.
  13. Hochmuth, G.J., Brecht, J.K., Bassett, M.J., 1999. Nitrogen fertilization to maximize carrot yield and quality on a sandy soil. HortScience 34, 641-645.
  14. Hole, C.C., Scaife, A., 1993. An analysis of the growth response of carrot seedlings to deficiency in some mineral nutrients. Plant and Soil 150, 147-156.
  15. Jackson, T., 1979. Soil acidity an important factor in production of beans, lettuce, carrots. Oregon State University.
  16. Kelley, W.T., 2009. Soil and Nutrition Management. In: Kelley, W.T., MacDonald, G., Phatak, S.C., (Ed.). Commercial Production and Management of Carrots. University of Georgia Extension Publication B-1175.
  17. Kristensen, H.L., Thorup-Kristensen, K., 2004. Uptake of 15N labeled nitrate by root systems of sweet corn, carrot and white cabbage from 0.2-2.5 meters depth. Plant and Soil 265, 93-100.
  18. Makries, J.L., Warncke, D.D., 2013. Timing nitrogen applications for quality tops and healthy root production in carrot. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 44, 2860-2874.
  19. Nunez, J., Hartz, T., Suslow, T., McGiffen, M., Natwick, E.T., 2008. Carrot production in California. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 7226.
  20. Pettipas, F.C., Lada, R.R., Caldwell, C.D., Miller, C., 2006. Leaf tissue testing and soil and plant tissue relationships for nitrogen management in carrots. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 37, 1597-1609.
  21. Pettipas, F.C., Lada, R.R., Caldwell, C.D., Warman, P., 2008. Critical tissue identification and soil-plant nutrient relationships in dicer carrot. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39, 763-788.
  22. Salo, T., 1999. Effects of band placement and nitrogen rate on dry matter accumulation, yield, and nitrogen uptake of cabbage, carrot, and onion. Agricultural Food Science Finland 2, 157-232.
  23. Sanderson, K.R., Fillmore, S.A.E., 2012. Slow- release nitrogen fertilization in carrot production on Prince Edward Island. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 92, 1223-1228.
  24. Smolen, S., Sady, W., 2008. Effect of various nitrogen fertilisation and foliar nutrition regimes on carrot (Daucus carota L.) yield. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 83, 427- 434.
  25. Smolen, S., Sady, W., 2009. The effect of various nitrogen fertilization and foliar nutrition regimes on the concentrations of sugars, carotenoids and phenolic compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Scientia Horticulturae 120, 315-324.
  26. Stone, D.A., 1998. The effects of "starter" fertilizer injection on the growth and yield of drilled vegetable crops in relation to soil nutrient status. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 73, 441-451.
  27. Tlustos, P., Pavlikova, D., Balik, J., Vanek, V., 2002. The uptake of nitrogen released from slow release N fertilizers by radish, lettuce and carrot. Acta Horticulturae 571, 127-134.
  28. University of California Small Farms Program. Fertilizing vegetables: Carrots.
  29. USDA NASS. Quickstats. (Accessed April, 2016)
  30. Veitch, R.S., Lada, R.R., Adams, A., MacDonald, M.T., 2014. Carrot yield and quality as influenced by nitrogen application in cut-and-peel carrots. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 45, 887-895.
  31. Wallace, T., 1943. The diagnosis of mineral deficiencies in plants by visual symptoms. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  32. Weaver, J.E., Bruner, W.E., 1927. Root development of vegetable crops. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York.
  33. Westerveld, S.M., McKeown, A.W., Scott-Dupree, C.D., McDonald, M.R., 2003. How well do critical nitrogen concentrations work for cabbage, carrot and onion crops? HortScience 38, 1122-1128.
  34. Westerveld, S.M., McDonald, M.R., McKeown, A.W., 2006a. Carrot yield, quality and storability in relation to preplant and residual nitrogen on mineral and organic soils. HortTechnology 16, 286-293.
  35. Westerveld, S.M., McKeown, A.W., McDonald, M.R., 2006b. Distribution of nitrogen uptake, fibrous roots and nitrogen in the soil profile for fresh- market and processing carrot cultivars. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 86, 1227-1237.
  36. Westerveld, S.M., McKeown, A.W., McDonald, M.R., 2006c. Seasonal nitrogen partitioning and nitrogen uptake of carrots as affected by nitrogen application a mineral and an organic soil. HortScience 41, 1332-1338.
  37. Westerveld, S.M., McDonald, M.R., McKeown, A.W., 2007a. Establishment of critical sap and soil nitrate concentrations using a Cardy nitrate memer for two carrot cultivars grown on organic and mineral soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38, 1911-1925.
  38. Westerveld, S.M., McDonald, M.R., McKeown, A.W., 2007b. Nitrogen utilization timeline of carrot over the growing season. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 87, 587-592.

Phosphorus

  1. BenDavid-Val, R., Rabinowitch, H.D., Katan, J., Kapulnik, Y., 1997. Viability of VA-mycorrhizal fungi following soil solarization and fumigation. Plant and Soil 195, 185-193.
  2. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  3. Dechassa, N., Schenk, M.K., Claassen, N., Steingrobe, B., 2003. Phosphorus efficiency of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. capitata), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.). Plant and Soil 250, 215-224.
  4. Evers, A.-M., 1989. The role of fertilization practices in the yield and quality of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Journal of Agricultural Science in Finland 61, 329-360.
  5. Grunes, D.L., 1959. Effect of nitrogen on the availability of soil and fertilizer phosphorus to plants. Advances in Agronomy 11, 369-396.
  6. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Soil testing for nutrient availability: Procedures and interpretation for California vegetable crop production. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center.
  7. Hemphill, D.D., 1982. Anticrustant effects on soil mechanical resistance and seedling emergence. HortScience 17, 391-393.
  8. Hochmuth, G.J., 2002. Response of snapbean, carrot, and sweet corn to monopotassium phosphate-based starter solutions 97-11. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
  9. Hole, C.C., Scaife, A., 1993. An analysis of the growth response of carrot seedlings to deficiency in some mineral nutrients. Plant and Soil 150, 147-156.
  10. Maynard, D.N., Hochmuth, G.J., 2007. Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers, 5th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  11. McPharlin, I.R., Aylmore, P.M., Jeffery, R.C., 1992. Response of carrots (Daucus carota L.) to applied phosphorus and phosphorus leaching on a Karrakatta sand, under two irrigation regimes. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 32, 225-232.
  12. McPharlin, I.R., Jeffery, R.C., Weissberg, R., 1994. Determination of the residual value of phosphate and soil test phosphorus calibration for carrots on a Karrakatta sand. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 25, 489-500.
  13. McPharlin, I.R., Lanztke, N.C., 2001. Response of winter-sown carrots (Daucus carota L.) to rate and timing of phosphorus application on Joel sands. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 689-695.
  14. Natural Resource Conservation Service. Crop Nutrient Tool. (Accessed June, 2016).
  15. Nunez, J., Carbone, J.E., Davis, R.M., 2007. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Kern County, CA, and dependency of carrots for optimal growth. UCCE Kern Vegetable Crops, September 2007.
  16. Nunez, J., Hartz, T., Suslow, T., McGiffen, M., Natwick, E.T., 2008. Carrot production in California. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 7226.
  17. Page, E.R., Gerwitz, A., 1969. Phosphate uptake by lettuces and carrots from different soil depths in the field. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 20, 85-90.
  18. Pettipas, F.C., Lada, R.R., Caldwell, C.D., Warman, P., 2008. Critical tissue identification and soil-plant nutrient relationships in dicer carrot. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39, 763-788.
  19. Plenchette, C., Fortin, J.A., Furnlan, V., 1983. Growth responses of several plant species to mycorrhizae in a soil of moderate P-fertility. Plant and Soil 70, 199-209.
  20. Reisenauer, H.M., Quick, J., Voss, R.E., 1976. Soil test interpretive guides. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 38-40.
  21. Salo, T., Suojala, T., Kallela, M., 2002. The effect of fertigation on yield and nutrient uptake of cabbage, carrot and onion. Acta Horticulturae 571, 235-241.
  22. Stone, D.A., 1998. The effects of "starter" fertilizer injection on the growth and yield of drilled vegetable crops in relation to soil nutrient status. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 73, 441-451.
  23. University of California Small Farms Program. Fertilizing vegetables: Carrots.
  24. Wallace, T., 1943. The diagnosis of mineral deficiencies in plants by visual symptoms. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  25. Weaver, J.E., Bruner, W.E., 1927. Root development of vegetable crops. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York.

Potassium

  1. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook, 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  2. Evers, A.-M., 1989. The role of fertilization practices in the yield and quality of carrot ( Daucus carota L.). Journal of Agricultural Science in Finland 61, 329-360.
  3. Hanson, B., May, D., 2011. Drip irrigation salinity management for row crops. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8447.
  4. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Soil testing for nutrient availability: Procedures and interpretation for California vegetable crop production. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center.
  5. Hochmuth, G.J., 2002. Response of snapbean, carrot, and sweet corn to monopotassium phosphate-based starter solutions 97-11. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultal Sciences.
  6. Hochmuth, G.J., Brecht, J.K., Bassett, M.J., 2006. Fresh-market carrot yield and quality did not respond to potassium fertilization on a sandy soil validated by Mehlich-1 soil test. HortTechnology 16, 270-276.
  7. Hole, C.C., Scaife, A., 1993. An analysis of the growth response of carrot seedlings to deficiency in some mineral nutrients. Plant and Soil 150, 147-156.
  8. Maynard, D.N., Hochmuth, G.J., 2007. Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers, 5th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  9. Natural Resource Conservation Service. Crop Nutrient Tool. (Accessed June, 2016).
  10. Nunez, J., Hartz, T., Suslow, T., McGiffen, M., Natwick, E.T., 2008. Carrot production in California. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 7226.
  11. Pettipas, F.C., Lada, R.R., Caldwell, C.D., Warman, P., 2008. Critical tissue identification and soil-plant nutrient relationships in dicer carrot. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39, 763-788.
  12. Reisenauer, H.M., Quick, J., Voss, R.E., 1976. Soil test interpretive guides. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 38-40.
  13. Salo, T., Suojala, T., Kallela, M., 2002. The effect of fertigation on yield and nutrient uptake of cabbage, carrot and onion. Acta Horticulturae 571, 235-241.
  14. Stone, D.A., 1998. The effects of "starter" fertilizer injection on the growth and yield of drilled vegetable crops in relation to soil nutrient status. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 73, 441-451.
  15. University of California Small Farms Program. Fertilizing vegetables: Carrots.
  16. Weaver, J.E., Bruner, W.E., 1927. Root development of vegetable crops. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York.