California Fertilization Guidelines

UC Davis
A collaboration between CDFA, FREP and UC Davis
 
N-P-K

Avocado

The fertilization guidelines on this site have been redesigned to be compliant with AB434. The guidelines in the traditional design with the latest updates can be found on the UC Davis Nutrient Management website .

References

Nitrogen

  1. Arpaia, M.L., 1999. Fruit nutrient removal values. In: Hofshi, R., Hofshi, S., 2012. Total Fruit Nutrient Removal Calculator for Hass Avocado in California. (Accessed 9/2015)
  2. Arpaia, M.L., 2005. Avocado postharvest quality: An overview. Presented to the New Zealand and Australia Avocado Grower's Conferences 2005. 20- 22 September, Tauranga, New Zealand.
  3. Arpaia, M.L., Meyer, J.L., Witney, G.W., Bender, G.S., Stottlemyer, D.S., Robinson, P.R., 1996. The Cashin Creek nitrogen fertilizer trial: What did we learn? California Avocado Society 1996 Yearbook 80, 85-98.
  4. Bender, G., 2013. Fertilization. In: Bender, G., (Ed.). Avocado production in California: A cultural handbook for growers, Book 2: Cultural Care. (2nd ed.). The University of California Cooperative Extension, San Diego County and The California Avocado Society. pp. 29-54.
  5. Cantarella, H., Mattos Jr., D., Quaggio, J.A., Rigolin, A.T., 2003. Fruit yield of Valencia sweet orange fertilized with different N sources and the loss of applied N. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 67, 215-223.
  6. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., 1964. Avocado nutrition in California. Reprinted from Vol. 77 of the Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, Miami, November 3- 6, 1964.
  7. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., Garber, M.J., 1960. Leaf analysis as a guide to nitrogen fertilization of the avocado. California Agriculture 14, 12-12.
  8. Faber, 2003. Leaf analysis.
  9. Faber, 2006. Living with fire.
  10. Faber, B., 2007. Leaf analysis. Topics in Subtropics 5, 2.
  11. Faber, B., 2013a. Cultural practices to reduce pest and disease in avocado and citrus. Topics in Subtropics 11, 2-3.
  12. Faber, B., 2013b. Learn to read your water report.
  13. Faber, B., 2013c. Microirrigation, fertilizers and clogging.
  14. Faber, B., 2014. When to fertilize avocado and citrus in California.
  15. Faber, B., 2015. Wow,there are so many avocados on my tree! Should I apply nitrogen at this time?
  16. Goodall, G.E., Embleton, T.W., Platt, R.G., 1978. Avocado fertilization. UC Division of Agricultural Sciences, Leaflet 2024.
  17. Jaganath, I., Lovatt, C.J., 1996. Efficacy studies on prebloom canopy applications of boron and/ or urea to 'Hass' avocados in California. 1996 Avocado Research Symposium, p. 51- 54.
  18. Jones, W.W., Embleton, T.W., 1976. Leaf analysis as a guide to avocado fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 10.
  19. Lahav, E., Kadman, A., 1980. Avocado Fertilisation. International Potash Institute, Bern, Switzerland.
  20. Lahav, E., Whiley, A.W., Turner, D.W., 2013. Irrigation and mineral nutrition. In: Schaffer, B., Wolstenholme, B.N., Whiley, A.W., (Eds.). The Avocado: Botany, Production and Uses (2nd ed.). CAB International, Boston, MA. pp. 301-341.
  21. Lovatt, C.J., 1999. Timing citrus and avocado foliar nutrient applications to increase fruit set and size. HortTechnology 9, 607-612.
  22. Lovatt, C.J., 2001. Properly timed soil-applied nitrogen fertilizer increases yield and fruit size of 'Hass' avocado. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 126, 555-559.
  23. Lovatt, C.J., 2008. Increasing yield of 'Hass' avocado by adding P and K to properly timed soil N applications. FREP final report.
  24. Lovatt, C.J., 2010. Alternate bearing of 'Hass' avocado. California Avocado Society 2010 Yearbook 93, 125-140.
  25. Lovatt, C., 2015. Fertilizing the 'Hass' avocado for maximum profitability.
  26. Lovatt, C.J., Faber, B., Rosecrance, R., 2010. Can a better tool for assessing 'Hass' avocado tree nutritional status be developed? : A feasibility study. FREP final report.
  27. Lovatt, C.J., Witney, G., 2001. Nitrogen fertilization of the 'Hass' avocado in California. AvoResearch 1, 3.
  28. Meyer, J.L., Yates, M.V., Stottlemyer, D.E., Takele, E., Arpaia, M.L., Bender, G.S., Witney, G.W., 1992.Irrigation and fertilization management of avocados. Proceedings of the Second World Avocado Congress 1992. pp. 281-288.
  29. Niederholzer, F.J.A., 2013. Efficient nitrogen management in prune production. Sacramento Valley Regional Prune Newsletter, April, 2013.
  30. Nevin, J.M., Lovatt, C.J., 1990. Problems with urea-N foliar fertilization of avocado. 1990 Summary of Avocado Research, p. 15-16.
  31. Rosecrance, R., Lovatt, C.J., 2004. Seasonal patterns of nutrient uptake and partitioning as a function of crop load of 'Hass' avocado. FREP final report.
  32. Rosecrance, R., Lovatt, C.J., 2013. Management tools for fertilization of the 'Hass' avocado. FREP final report.
  33. Salazar-Garcia, S., Cortes-Flores, J.I., 1986. Root distribution of mature avocado trees growing in soils of different texture. California Avocado Society 1986 Yearbook 70, 165-174.
  34. Witney, G., Arpaia, M.L., 1991. Tree recovery after the December 1990 freeze. California Avocado Society 1991 Yearbook 75, 63-70.
  35. Zasoski, R.J., 1994. Nitrogen efficiency in drip irrigated almonds. FREP Final Report.

Phosphorus

  1. Arpaia, M.L., 1999. Fruit nutrient removal values. In: Hofshi, R., Hofshi, S., 2012. Total Fruit Nutrient Removal Calculator for Hass Avocado in California. (Accessed 9/2015)
  2. Bender, G.S., 2005. Phosphorous acid in avocado production: Should it be a cultural recommendation? Topics in Subtropics 3, 1-3.
  3. Bender, G., 2013. Fertilization. In: Bender, G., (Ed.). Avocado production in California: A cultural handbook for growers, Book 2: Cultural Care. (2nd ed.). The University of California Cooperative Extension, San Diego County and The California Avocado Society. pp. 29-54.
  4. Boman, B., Obreza, T., 2002. Fertigation nutrient sources and application considerations for citrus. University of Florida IFAS Extension, Circular 1410.
  5. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., 1964. Avocado nutrition in California. Reprinted from Vol. 77 of the Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, Miami, November 3- 6, 1964.
  6. Faber, 2003. Leaf analysis.
  7. Faber, B., 2007. Leaf Analysis. Topics in Subtropics 5, 2.
  8. Faber, B., 2014. Zinc and phosphorus. Topics in Subtropics 12, 5-6.
  9. Fulton, A., 2010. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 2 - NPK.
  10. Jones, W.W., Embleton, T.W., 1976. Leaf analysis as a guide to avocado fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 10.
  11. Lahav, E., Whiley, A.W., Turner, D.W., 2013. Irrigation and mineral nutrition. In: Schaffer, B., Wolstenholme, B.N., Whiley, A.W., (Eds.). The Avocado: Botany, Production and Uses (2nd ed.). CAB International, Boston, MA. pp. 301-341.
  12. Lovatt, C.J., 1990. A definitive test to determine whether phosphite fertilization can replace phosphate fertilization to supply P in the metabolism of 'Hass' on 'Duke 7'. California Avocado Society 1990 Yearbook 74, 61-64.
  13. Lovatt, C.J., 1999. Timing citrus and avocado foliar nutrient applications to increase fruit set and size. HortTechnology 9, 607-612.
  14. Lovatt, C.J., 2008. Increasing yield of 'Hass' avocado by adding P and K to properly timed soil N applications. FREP final report.
  15. Lovatt, C.J., 2010. Alternate bearing of 'Hass' avocado. California Avocado Society 2010 Yearbook 93, 125-140.
  16. Lovatt, C.J., 2013. Properly timing foliar-applied fertilizer increases efficacy: A review and update on timing foliar nutrient applications to citrus and avocado. HortTechnology 23, 536-541.
  17. Lovatt, C.J., Mikkelsen, R.L., 2006. Phosphite fertilizers: What are they? Can you use them? What can they do? Better Crops 90, 11- 13.
  18. Marais, L.J., Menge, J.A., Bender, G.S., Faber, B., 2002. Alternate bearing of 'Hass' avocado. AvoResearch 2, 1-4.
  19. Meyer, J.L., Yates, M.V., Stottlemyer, D.E., Takele, E., Arpaia, M.L., Bender, G.S., … Witney, G.W., 1992. Irrigation and fertilization management of avocados. Proceedings of the Second World Avocado Congress 1992. pp. 281-288.
  20. Oster, J.D., Stottlemyer, D.E., Arpaia, M.L., 2007. Salinity and water effects on 'Hass' avocado yields. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Sciences 132, 253-261.
  21. Rosecrance, R., Lovatt, C.J., 2004. Seasonal patterns of nutrient uptake and partitioning as a function of crop load of 'Hass' avocado. FREP final report.
  22. Rosecrance, R., Lovatt, C.J., 2013. Management tools for fertilization of the 'Hass' avocado. FREP final report.
  23. Salazar-Garcia, S., Cortes-Flores, J.I., 1986. Root distribution of mature avocado trees growing in soils of different texture. California Avocado Society 1986 Yearbook 70, 165-174.
  24. Schwankl, L.J., 2013. Fertigation.

Potassium

  1. Arpaia, M.L., 1999. Fruit nutrient removal values. In: Hofshi, R., Hofshi, S., 2012. Total Fruit Nutrient Removal Calculator for Hass Avocado in California. (Accessed 9/2015)
  2. Bender, G., 2013. Fertilization. In: Bender, G., (Ed.). Avocado production in California: A cultural handbook for growers, Book 2: Cultural Care. (2nd ed.). The University of California Cooperative Extension, San Diego County and The California Avocado Society. pp. 29-54.
  3. Faber, 2003. Leaf analysis.
  4. Faber, B., 2007. Leaf Analysis. Topics in Subtropics 5, 2.
  5. Faber, B., 2014. When to fertilize avocado and citrus in California.
  6. Faber, B., 2015a. Putting fertilizer chloride in perspective.
  7. Faber, B., 2015b. Salt, sodium and potassium and drought.
  8. Fulton, A., 2010. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 2 - NPK.
  9. Jones, W.W., Embleton, T.W., 1976. Leaf analysis as a guide to avocado fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 10.
  10. Lahav, E., Whiley, A.W., Turner, D.W., 2013. Irrigation and mineral nutrition. In: Schaffer, B., Wolstenholme, B.N., Whiley, A.W., (Eds.).(2013). The Avocado: Botany, Production and Uses (2nd ed.). CAB International, Boston, MA. pp. 301-341.
  11. Limaco Sing, J., McNeil, R.J., 1992. The effectiveness of foliar potassium nitrate sprays on the 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Proceedings of the Second World Avocado Congress 1992. pp. 337-342.
  12. Lovatt, C.J., 1999. Timing citrus and avocado foliar nutrient applications to increase fruit set and size. HortTechnology 9, 607-612.
  13. Lovatt, C.J., 2008. Increasing yield of 'Hass' avocado by adding P and K to properly timed soil N applications. FREP final report.
  14. Lovatt, C.J., 2010. Alternate bearing of 'Hass' avocado. California Avocado Society 2010 Yearbook 93, 125-140.
  15. Meyer, J.L., Yates, M.V., Stottlemyer, D.E., Takele, E., Arpaia, M.L., Bender, G.S., ... Witney, G.W., 1992. Irrigation and fertilization management of avocados. Proceedings of the Second World Avocado Congress 1992. pp. 281-288.
  16. Oster, J.D., Stottlemyer, D.E., Arpaia, M.L., 2007. Salinity and water effects on 'Hass' avocado yields. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Sciences 132, 253-261.
  17. Rosecrance, R., Lovatt, C.J., 2004. Seasonal patterns of nutrient uptake and partitioning as a function of crop load of 'Hass' avocado. FREP final report.
  18. Salazar-Garcia, S., Cortes-Flores, J.I., 1986. Root distribution of mature avocado trees growing in soils of different texture. California Avocado Society 1986 Yearbook 70, 165-174.

Zinc

  1. Bender, G., 2013. Fertilization. In: Bender, G., (Ed.). Avocado production in California: A cultural handbook for growers, Book 2: Cultural Care. (2nd ed.). The University of California Cooperative Extension, San Diego County and The California Avocado Society. pp. 29-54.
  2. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  3. Crowley, D.E., Smith, W., 1995. Soil factors associated with Zn deficiency in avocado. California Avocado Society 1995 Yearbook 79, 171-183.
  4. Crowley, D.E., Smith, W., Faber, B., Arpaia, M.L., 2001. Trace metal nutrition of avocado. AvoResearch 1, October 2001.
  5. Crowley, D.E., Smith, W., Faber, B., Manthey, J.A., 1996. Zinc fertilization of avocado trees. HortScience 31, 224-229.
  6. Faber, 2003. Leaf analysis.
  7. Faber, B., 2007. Leaf analysis. Topics in Subtropics 5, 2.
  8. Faber, B., 2014. Zinc and phosphorus. Topics in Subtropics 12, 5-6.
  9. Goodall, G.E., Embleton, T.W., Platt, R.G., 1978. Avocado fertilization. UC Division of Agricultural Sciences, Leaflet 2024.
  10. Jones, W.W., Embleton, T.W., 1976. Leaf analysis as a guide to avocado fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 10.
  11. Lahav, E., Whiley, A.W., Turner, D.W., 2013. Irrigation and mineral nutrition. In: Schaffer, B., Wolstenholme, B.N., Whiley, A.W., (Eds.).(2013). The Avocado: Botany, Production and Uses (2nd ed.). CAB International, Boston, MA. pp. 301-341.
  12. Lovatt, C.J., 1999. Timing citrus and avocado foliar nutrient applications to increase fruit set and size. HortTechnology 9, 607-612.
  13. Lovatt, C.J., 2010. Alternate bearing of 'Hass' avocado. California Avocado Society 2010 Yearbook 93, 125-140.