California Fertilization Guidelines

UC Davis
A collaboration between CDFA, FREP and UC Davis
 
N-P-K

Alfalfa

The fertilization guidelines on this site have been redesigned to be compliant with AB434. The guidelines in the traditional design with the latest updates can be found on the UC Davis Nutrient Management website .

References

Nitrogen

  1. Freeman Long, R., Putnam, D.H., 2013. When is nitrogen fertilization of alfalfa beneficial? Almost never! Alfalfa & Forage News.
  2. Gault, R.R., Peoples, M.B., Turner, G.L., Lilley, D.M., Brockwell, J., Bergersen, F.J., 1995. Nitrogen fixation by irrigated lucerne during the first three years after establishment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46, 1401-1425.
  3. Hannaway, D.B., Shuler, P.E., 1993. Nitrogen fertilization in alfalfa production. Journal of Production Agriculture 6, 80-85.
  4. Hays, T., 2012. Critical issues in alfalfa fertility . Proceedings of the California Alfalfa & Grains Symposium 2012.
  5. Heichel, G.H., Barnes, D.K., Vance, C.P., 1981. Nitrogen fixation of alfalfa in seeding year. Crop Science 21, 330-335.
  6. Heichel, G.H., Barnes, D.K., Vance, C.P., Henjum, K.I., 1984. N2 fixation and N and dry matter partitioning during a 4-year alfalfa stand. Crop Science 24, 811-815.
  7. Koenig, R.T., 2002. Nitrogen, sulfur, potassium and phosphorus fertilization in alfalfa when are they necessary? Proceedings of the 32nd California Alfalfa Forage Symposium 2002.
  8. Lanyon, L.E., Griffith, W.K., 1988. Nutrition and fertilizer use. In: Hanson, A.A., Barnes, D.K., Hill, R.R. (Eds.) Alfalfa and Alfalfa Improvement. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America. Agronomy Monograph no. 29. Madison, WI. pp. 333-372.
  9. Meyer, R.D., Marcum, D.B., Orloff, S.B., Schmierer, J.L., 2007. Alfalfa fertilization strategies . In: Summers, C.G., Putnam, D.H. (Eds.) Irrigated Alfalfa Management in Mediterranean and Desert Zones. Chapter 6. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8310.
  10. Mueller, S.C., Frate, C.A., Campbell Mathews, M., 2007. Alfalfa stand establishment . In: Summers, C.G., Putnam, D.H. (Eds.) Irrigated Alfalfa Management in Mediterranean and Desert Zones. Chapter 4. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8310.
  11. Putnam, D., Mueller, S., Frate, C., Canevari, M., Orloff, S., 2012. Key practices for alfalfa stand establishment . Proceedings of the California Alfalfa & Grains Symposium, 2012.
  12. Summers, C.G., 2007. Diagnostic key to problems in alfalfa . In: Summers, C.G., Putnam, D.H. (Eds.) Irrigated Alfalfa Management in Mediterranean and Desert Zones. Chapter 24. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8310.

Phosphorus

  1. Azcon, R., El-Atrach, F., Barea, J.M., 1988. Influence of mycorrhiza vs. soluble phosphate on growth, nodulation, and N2 fixation in alfalfa under different levels of water potential. Biology & Fertility of Soils 7, 28-31.
  2. Biscaro, A., Orloff, S., 2009. Site-specific fertilization of alfalfa fields: Improved yield at lower costs? Proceedings of the 39th California Alfalfa Forage Symposium, 2009.
  3. Cihacek, L.J., 1993. Phosphorus source effects on alfalfa yields, total nitrogen content, and soil test phosphorus. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis 24, 2043-2057.
  4. Fageria, N.K., Barbosa Filho, M.P., Moreira, A., Guimarães, C.M., 2009. Foliar fertilization of crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1044-1064.
  5. Fixen P.E., Ludwick, A.E., 1983. Phosphorus and potassium fertilization of irrigated alfalfa on calcareous soils: I. Soil test maintenance requirements. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47, 107-112.
  6. Freeman Long, R., Putnam, D.H., 2013. When is nitrogen fertilization of alfalfa beneficial? Almost never! Alfalfa & Forage News.
  7. Hays, T., 1998. “How much fertilizer do I need ?” Soil testing and alfalfa fertilization. Proceedings of the 28th California Alfalfa Symposium 1998.
  8. James, D.W., Tindall, T.A., Hurst, C.J., Hussein, A.N., 1995. Alfalfa cultivar responses to phosphorus and potassium deficiency: Biomass. Journal of Plant Nutrition 18, 2431-2445.
  9. Koenig, R., Winward, D., Reid, C., Barnhill, J., Pace, M., Heaton, K., 2009. Phosphorus source and surface fluid band spacing effects on irrigated alfalfa. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 367-374.
  10. Lamba, P.S., Ahlgren, H.A., Muchenhirn, R.I., 1949. Root growth of alfalfa, medium red clover, bromegrass and timothy under various soil conditions. Agronomy Journal 41, 451-458.
  11. Lanyon, L.E., Griffith, W.K., 1988. Nutrition and fertilizer use. In: Hanson, A.A., Barnes, D.K., Hill, R.R. (Eds.) Alfalfa and Alfalfa Improvement. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America. Agronomy Monograph no. 29. Madison, WI. pp. 333-372.
  12. Leyshon, A. J., 1982. deleterious effects on yield of drilling fertilizer into established alfalfa stands. Agronomy Journal 74, 741-743.
  13. Malakondaiah, N., Safaya, N.M., Wali, M.K., 1981. Responses of alfalfa and barley to foliar application of N and P on a coal mine spoil. Plant & Soil 59, 441-453.
  14. Malhi, S.S., Zentner, R.P., Heier, K., 2001. Banding increases effectiveness of fertilizer P for alfalfa production. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 59, 1-11.
  15. Meyer, R.D., 1996. Critical soil fertility issues in alfalfa production . Proceedings of the 26th California Alfalfa Symposium and 26th National Alfalfa Symposium 1996.
  16. Meyer, R.D. Martin, W.E., 1976. Plant analysis as a guide for fertilization of alfalfa. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 26-29.
  17. Meyer, R.D., Marcum, D.B., Schmierer, J.L., 1998. Do I need fertilizer? - Ask the plant! Proceedings of the 28th California/Nevada Alfalfa Symposium.
  18. Meyer, R.D., Marcum, D.B., Orloff, S.B., Schmierer, J.L., 2007. Alfalfa fertilization strategies . In: Summers, C.G., Putnam, D.H. (Eds.) Irrigated Alfalfa Management in Mediterranean and Desert Zones. Chapter 6. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8310.
  19. Mikkelsen, R., 2004. Managing phosphorus for maximum alfalfa yield and quality . Proceedings of the 34th California Alfalfa Symposium and 2004 National Alfalfa Symposium.
  20. Orloff, S., Putnam, D., 2013. Improved methods for nutrient tissue testing in alfalfa . Proceedings of the 21st Annual FREP Conference. pp. 45-49.
  21. Orloff, S., Putnam, D., Wilson, R., 2008. Maximizing fertilizer efficiency through tissue testing and improved application methods . Proceedings of the 38th California Alfalfa Forage Symposium, 2008.
  22. Ottman, M.J., Thompson, T.L., Rogers, M.T., White, S.A., 2000. Alfalfa response to forms of phosphorus fertilizer. University of Arizona Forage and Grain Report.
  23. Ottman, M.J., Thompson, T.L., Doerge, T.A., 2006. Alfalfa yield and soil phosphorus increased with topdressed granular compared with fluid phosphorus fertilizer. Agronomy Journal 98, 899–906.
  24. Putnam, D., Orloff, S., 1998. Researchers urge vigorous methods.... Proper sampling methods improve accuracy of lab testing .
  25. Reid, C.R., Winward, D.L., Koenig, R.T., 2004. A comparison of liquid phosphoric acid and dry phosphorus fertilizer sources for irrigated alfalfa production on calcareous soils. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis 35, 39-50.
  26. Sallee, W.R., Ulrich, A., Martin, W.E., Krantz, B.A., 1959. High phosphorus for alfalfa: Plant analysis used to evaluate phosphorus status of alfalfa fields as guide to fertilizing for better yields and returns. California Agriculture 13(8), 7-8.
  27. Sanderson, M.A., Jones, R.M., 1993. Stand dynamics and yield components of alfalfa as affected by phosphorus fertility. Agronomy Journal 85, 241-246.
  28. Schmierer, J.L., Meyer, R.D., Putnam, D.H., 2005. Testing alfalfa for phosphorus and potassium nutrient deficiencies . Proceedings of the 35th California Alfalfa Forage Symposium, 2005.
  29. Sheard, R.W., 1980. Nitrogen in the P band for forage establishment. Agronomy Journal 72, 89-97.
  30. Sheard, R.W., Bradshaw, G J., Massey, D. L., 1971. Phosphorus placement for the establishment of alfalfa and bromegrass. Agronomy Journal 63, 922-927.
  31. Simons, R.G., Grant, C.A. and Bailey, L.D. 1995. Effect of fertilizer placement on yield of established alfalfa stands. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 75, 883-887.
  32. Undersander, D., Cosgrove, D., Cullen, E., Grau, C., Rice, M.E., Renz, M., Sheaffer, C., Shewmaker, G., Sulc, M., 2011. Alfalfa Management Guide . American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
  33. Weaver, J.W., 1926. Root Development of Field Crops. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York.

Potassium

  1. Bethard, G., Verbeck, R., Smith, J.F., 1998. Controlling milk fever and hypocalcemia in dairy cattle: Use of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) in formulating dry cow rations . New Mexico State University Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Report 31.
  2. Biscaro, A., Orloff, S., 2009. Site-specific fertilization of alfalfa fields: Improved yield at lower costs? Proceedings of the 39th California Alfalfa Forage Symposium, 2009.
  3. Burmester, C.H., Mullins, G.L., Ball, D.M., 1991. Potassium fertilization effects on yield and longevity of established alfalfa. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis 22, 2047-2062.
  4. Fageria, N.K., Barbosa Filho, M.P., Moreira, A., Guimarães, C.M., 2009. Foliar fertilization of crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1044-1064.
  5. Hays, T., 1998. “How much fertilizer do I need ?” Soil testing and alfalfa fertilization . Proceedings of the 28th California Alfalfa Symposium 1998.
  6. Koenig, R.T., 2002. Nitrogen, sulfur, potassium and phosphorus fertilization in alfalfa when are they necessary? Proceedings of the 32nd California Alfalfa Forage Symposium 2002.
  7. Koenig, R.T. Barnhill, J.V., 2006. Potassium management in alfalfa: A summary of eight years of research in an arid environment . Proceedings of the 36th California Alfalfa Forage Symposium, 2006.
  8. Lamba, P.S., Ahlgren, H.A., Muchenhirn, R.I., 1949. Root growth of alfalfa, medium red clover, bromegrass and timothy under various soil conditions. Agronomy Journal 41, 451-458.
  9. Meyer, R.D., 1996. Critical soil fertility issues in alfalfa production . Proceedings of the 26th California Alfalfa Symposium and 26th National Alfalfa Symposium 1996.
  10. Meyer, R.D. Martin, W.E., 1976. Plant analysis as a guide for fertilization of alfalfa. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 26-29.
  11. Meyer, R.D., Marcum, D.B., Schmierer, J.L., 1998. Do I need fertilizer? - Ask the plant! Proceedings of the 28th California/Nevada Alfalfa Symposium.
  12. Meyer, R.D., Marcum, D.B., Orloff, S.B., Schmierer, J.L., 2007. Alfalfa fertilization strategies . In: Summers, C.G., Putnam, D.H. (Eds.) Irrigated Alfalfa Management in Mediterranean and Desert Zones. Chapter 6. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8310.
  13. Orloff, S., Putnam, D., 2013. Improved methods for nutrient tissue testing in alfalfa . Proceedings of the 21st Annual FREP Conference. pp. 45-49.
  14. Orloff, S., Putnam, D., Wilson, R., 2008. Maximizing fertilizer efficiency through tissue testing and improved application methods . Proceedings of the 38th California Alfalfa Forage Symposium, 2008.
  15. Peterson, L.A., Smith, D., Krueger, A., 1983. Quantitative recovery by alfalfa with time of K placed at different soil depths for two soil types. Agronomy Journal 75, 25-30.
  16. Putnam, D., Orloff, S., 1998. Researchers urge vigorous methods.... Proper sampling methods improve accuracy of lab testing .
  17. Sallee, W.R., Ulrich, A., Martin, W.E., Krantz, B.A., 1959. High phosphorus for alfalfa: Plant analysis used to evaluate phosphorus status of alfalfa fields as guide to fertilizing for better yields and returns. California Agriculture 13(8), 7-8.
  18. Sanderson, M.A., Jones, R.M., 1993. Stand dynamics and yield components of alfalfa as affected by phosphorus fertility. Agronomy Journal 85, 241-246.
  19. Schmierer, J.L., Meyer, R.D., Putnam, D.H., 2005. Testing alfalfa for phosphorus and potassium nutrient deficiencies . Proceedings of the 35th California Alfalfa Forage Symposium, 2005.
  20. Summers, C.G., 2007. Diagnostic key to problems in alfalfa . In: Summers, C.G., Putnam, D.H. (Eds.) Irrigated Alfalfa Management in Mediterranean and Desert Zones. Chapter 24. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8310.
  21. Weaver, J.W., 1926. Root Development of Field Crops. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York.