ca.gov

CDFA Plant Health

Japanese Beetle (JB)

 wedge  Pest Hotline: 1-800-491-1899

Treatment Areas

- Notifications and Maps

Quarantines

- No quarantines at this time.

JB Info Links

- Pest Profile

Japanese Beetle Project Decisions

blue wedge 2017 JB Project Decisions

  • Fair Oaks - No treatment
    • No JB life stages detected in 2016
    • Delimitation trapping only beginning May 1, 2017
  • Sunnyvale - No treatment
    • No JB life stages detected in 2016
    • Delimitation trapping only beginning May 1, 2017
  • Carmichael - No treatment
    • One JB adult trapped on May 9, 2016
    • Delimitation trapping only beginning May 1, 2017
  •           Reasoning:

      • Eradication Project design provides for possiblity of carry over population (can only treat vegetative material per label instructions - this is why multiple year project)
      • Negative delimitation trapping for remainder of 2016 season
      • A late surviving instar emerged from an area which could not be treated in 2015 due to label restrictions
      • 2015 treatments with Merit 2F were made in late June and are not effective against an existing late instar if present
      • 2016 Acelepryn treatments made April-May 15 not effective against late instar/pupa but extremely effective for any new instar resulting from any 2016 egg laying
      • One detection does not meet the existing SAP's recommendation for an eradication treatment trigger

 

2016 Japanese Beetle Detections

blue wedge 2016 JB Detections

  • Trap detections outside high risk facilities (3 adults):
    • 1 adult in Hawaiian Gardens (Los Angeles County)
    • 1 adult in La Palma (Orange County)
    • 1 adult in Carmichael (Sacramento County)
  • Trap detections at high risk facilities:
    • 20 adults at airports and freight forward facilities in Los Angeles, Orange, Sacramento, San Bernardino and San Diego counties
  • Aircraft visual inspection detections (untrapped):
    • Adults found on 108 aircraft at airports in Alameda, Los Angeles, Orange, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego and Santa Clara counties

 

How We Can Stop the Japanese Beetle


blue wedge Final JB SAP Recommendations (pdf)

blue wedge PowerPoint Presentations and Recordings of JB SAP Webinars

blue wedge Japanese Beetle Origins and History

The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, is native to Japan. Adults feed on the fruit, flowers, and leaves of a wide variety of plants, while the larvae live underground and feed on roots and decaying material, favoring grass roots. JB is most common on the northern Japanese islands of Honshu and Hokkaido. It is not common on the more southern islands of Japan because it competes with other related species and because these islands lack the abundant grasslands of the north that are conducive to JB larval feeding. It is not considered much of a pest even on the northern islands because population levels remain constrained by the cool climate, which causes the JB to have a two-year life cycle, and by a parasitic fly that is well synchronized with the JB life cycle.

In 1916, JB was discovered in a nursery in New Jersey, possibly arriving inadvertently in potted bulbs from Japan. The environment it encountered in the United States (US) was warmer than its native range, and this allowed it to complete its life cycle in only one year, leading to a more rapid population buildup than in its native range. In addition, the abundance of grass grown in lawns in urban areas provided a ready larval food source, and this combined with the absence of its main parasitic fly further allowed the fledgling infestation to grow quickly and spread. As a result, in the 100 years since it was discovered in the U.S., it has completely colonized 20 states and partially infested another 15. Its US distribution now ranges from Maine south to Georgia and westward to the Mississippi River, with additional areas scattered across the Great Plains to central Colorado.  California has historically been free of JB, but has experienced the occasional infestation. These infestations have been aggressively eradicated when found, and this has allowed the state to maintain its nationally-recognized JB-free status.

blue wedge Damage Caused by Japanese Beetle

blue square Natural Environment

The JB feeds on a broad range of plants, so if it became permanently established in California it would pose a serious threat to some of our native plants, including some of California’s threatened and endangered species that are related to one or more known host plants. A discussion of these species follows, and those recognized nationally are denoted as federally endangered (FE) or federally threatened (FT), while species on the California lists are state endangered (SE) or state threatened (ST).

Members of the rose family (Rosaceae) are commonly attacked by JB. Roses (Rosa spp.) are preferred hosts. Small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia; SE) occurs only in San Diego County in the United States. The Mt. Shasta snow-wreath (Neviusia cliftonii; Rosaceae) is found only in the Mt Shasta region and is closely related to Kerria japonica, a plant that is a known host for JB. Hickman’s cinquefoil (Potentilla hickmanii; FE; SE) is an endangered plant of the Central Coast of California that is in the rose family.

A range of grasses (Poaceae) are attacked by JB, especially in its larval stage. Rare grasses in California that might be attacked by JB include Napa bluegrass (Poa napensis; FE; SE) and Sonoma alopecurus (Alopecurus aequalis ssp. sonomensis; FE). In addition, California is the only home of a group of grasses endemic to vernal pools including such species as hairy Orcutt grass (Orcuttia pilosa; FE; SE) and Tuctoria mucronata (Solano grass; FE; SE).

The mustards (Brassica spp.) are attacked by JB. California is home to many rare, endemic members of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Examples include California jewelflower (Caulanthus californicus; FE; CE), Metcalf Canyon jewelflower (Streptanthus albidus; FE), and Mt Hermon wallflower (Erysimum teretifolium; FE; CE).

The mallow family (Malvaceae) has many members that are attacked by JB. Examples of California genera containing rare species in this group include checkermallows (e.g., bird‐foot checkerbloom, Sidalcea pedata [FE; CE] and Keck’s checkermallow, Sidalcea keckii [FE]) and California hibiscus (Hibiscus lasiocarpus var. occidentalis).

JBs attack several genera of the legume family (Fabaceae), including theclovers (Trifolium spp.). Rare clovers in California include showy Rancheria clover (Trifolium amoenum; FE)andMonterey clover(Trifolium trichocalyx; FE; SE). The legume family also includes lupines, the larval food plants of several endangered invertebrates. Lupines, especially L. arboreus, are the larval food plant of the Mission blue butterfly (Plebejus icarioides missionensis; FE) and Boisduval’s blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides; FE).

Several genera of the knotweed family (Polygonaceae) are attacked by JB. In California, Hickman’s knotweed (Polygonum hickmanii; FE; SE) and Ione buckwheat (Eriogonum apricum spp. apricum; FE; SE) are examples in Polygonaceae of rare species that potentially could be attacked by JB. The genus Eriogonum contains several species that are the obligate host plants of endangered invertebrates such as El Segundo blue butterfly (Euphilotes  battoides allyni; FE), Smith's blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi; FE), and Lange's metalmark butterfly  (Apodemia mormo langei; FE; SE).

The exceedingly large daisy family (Asteraceae) contains several known hosts of JB such as sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and horseweed (Erigeron canadensis). Closely related species of concern in California include Algodones Dunes sunflower (Helianthus niveus ssp. tephrodes; FE; SE) and Parish's daisy (Erigeron parishii; FT).

blue square Residential and Urban Environment

Do you like your lawn, apple and other fruit trees, crabapple, Japanese maple, grapes, raspberries, strawberries, sweet corn, other vegetable and ornamental plants? Do you enjoy your landscape and tree canopy? So does the JB. The JB has severe impacts on our urban environment affecting homeowners.

The following is from USDA’s Program Aid No. 1599, “Managing the Japanese Beetle: A Homeowner’s Handbook, 2004.” This document can be accessed at: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/jb/downloads/JBhandbook.pdf

“Both as adults and as grubs (the larval stage), Japanese beetles (JB) are destructive plant pests. Adults feed on the foliage and fruits of several hundred species of fruit trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, and field and vegetable crops. Adults leave behind skeletonized leaves and large, irregular holes in leaves.

The grubs develop in the soil, feeding on the roots of various plants and grasses and often destroying turf in lawns, parks, golf courses, and pastures. Today, the Japanese beetle is the most widespread turf-grass pest in the United States. Efforts to control the larval and adult stages are estimated to cost more than $460 million a year. Losses attributable to the larval stage alone have been estimated at $234 million per year—$78 million for control costs and an additional $156 million for replacement of damaged turf.”

The $78 million for control costs represents increased pesticide use in areas east of the Rocky Mountains where JB is established and there is no attempt to eradicate it as it is not feasible. These are the pest control management costs that come with having to “live with” the JB.

Larvae damage to turf
Image result for japanese beetle damage Image result for japanese beetle damage


Adult damage to urban trees
Image result for japanese beetle damage Image result for japanese beetle damage


Adult damage to corn Adult damage to rose flower
Image result for japanese beetle damage Image result for japanese beetle damage


Adult damage to rose foliage Adult damage to basil
Image result for japanese beetle damage roses Image result for japanese beetle damage roses


blue square Agriculture

JB would cause damage to most fruit trees, vineyards for wine, raisins and table grapes, other berry crops, turf and nursery stock. Small farmers and nurseries near urban areas will likely be affected the most.

Is Japanese Beetle Established In California?

No, JB is not established in California. While the JB is established in most eastern states, it is not established in California or the rest of the western US. As localized infestations are detected here, we work to isolate and eradicate them before they can become footholds that could lead to wider infestation and establishment.

CDFA is a member of the National Plant Board (http://nationalplantboard.org/) and follows the national and international standards outlined in the U.S. Domestic JB Harmonization Plan (http://nationalplantboard.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/jbcolumn.pdf ). This JB Plan specifies the requirements to remain JB-free based upon general detection trapping and intensive trapping (delimitation) should a possible incipient infestation be detected in an uninfested state. If a state finds an incipient infestation and responds by conducting an eradication project followed by delimitation trapping with no subsequent JB detections, that state will be nationally and internationally recognized as being free from JB.

In order to prevent the introduction of JB via the shipment of infested nursery stock, most western states, including California have implemented quarantines against infested states. The quarantines are based on the U.S. Domestic JB Harmonization Plan (JB Plan) developed by the National Plant Board. The National Plant Board (NPB), which is comprised of all US state regulatory officials, formed a JB Working Group to develop the JB Plan. Participants included scientists with expertise on the JB and representatives from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Canadian Food Inspection Agency, other states’ regulatory experts and the American Nursery and Landscape Association.

    Specific objectives and goals of the JB Plan were to:

  1. Establish a framework that encourages states to consistently and appropriately characterize Japanese beetle pest risk and infestation status based on up-to-date scientific and field information;

  2. Pursue more uniform adoption and implementation of pest risk mitigation measures to reduce pest risk to a level acceptable to receiving states. It is universally accepted that quarantine action must be shown to be necessary, reasonable, technically justified and limited to the action needed to adequately mitigate the assessed pest risk

CDFA is a member of the NPB and as such, is covered by the JB Plan. Under this plan, California is provided the highest national protection from the introduction of JB by being recognized as a “Category 1” state. This means that all states with JB infestations must provide any host material shipped to the state with the highest level of quarantine certification. All of California’s JB exclusion, detection and eradication activities have their foundation in the JB Harmonization Plan which is also internationally recognized by Canada.

The JB Plan can be found at:
http://nationalplantboard.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/jbcolumn.pdf

blue wedge Reducing Habitat Conducive to JB Populations (pdf)

blue wedge California's Pest Prevention System

California maintains a five part pest prevention system composed of 1) Pest Exclusion to prevent the introduction and spread within the state of newly introduced pests, 2) Pest Detection to detect incipient infestations as soon as possible, 3) Pest eradication to eliminate incipient infestations when feasible, 4) Pest Management for infestations that are not feasible to eradicate but which can be controlled, and 5) Pest Identification and Outreach to ensure timely and accurate identification of pests and to educate the public about pest management activities.

blue wedge Pest Exclusion Efforts Directed at JB

The United States Department of Agriculture maintains a JB Federal Domestic Quarantine (7CFR section 301.48) which enables the regulation of any airport or portions of an airport in a quarantined state. Regulated airlines are required to implement safeguards to prevent JB from entering the cargo holds and passenger areas of planes. Planes landing in this state from high risk regulated airports are inspected upon arrival for the presence of JB. In California, such inspections have occurred since 1960.

CDFA maintains a JB State Exterior Quarantine (Title 3, CCR, section 3280) which prohibits all containerized nursery stock and plants with roots and soil from entering the state unless it meets the quarantine certification requirements. We inspect shipments at 16 strategically located Border Protection Stations (BPS) on our highways to ensure compliance with this regulation prior to entry into the state. BPS staff also  inspect shipments of nursery stock and potted plants for JB larva and pupa that may be hiding in the soil and roots. 

For packages being shipped to California, the County Agricultural Commissioners’ staffs perform inspections of incoming shipments at Postal/Fed Ex/UPS facilities. Our Dog Team Program strategically places inspector dogs and their handlers in various counties to increase the efficacy and efficiency of package inspections at the Postal/Fed Ex/UPS facilities. The dogs are trained by the USDA to detect packages containing plant material. County staff also perform destination inspections of incoming nursery stock arriving from states under quarantine for JB. 

blue wedge History of JB Interceptions/Rejections in California

The following tables summarize the Japanese beetle interceptions by multiple facets of our pest exclusion system.

Border Protection Stations' JB Activity

PDR, Rejections and Interception Totals for 2005-2015

 


Interceptions **

Rejections

PDRs

Totals

2005

0

12

5

17

2006

0

7

14

21

2007

0

11

51

62

2008

0

7

28

35

2009

218

7

5

230

2010

251

26

10

287

2011

272

45

6

323

2012

337

36

14

387

2013

103

18

1

122

2014

108

36

3

147

2015*

3

8

1

12

Totals

1292

213

138

* partial year

** database collection did not begin until 2009

 

Interceptions = shipments of JB host material.

Rejections = shipments arriving which are not in compliance with our JB Exterior Quarantine requirements and denied entry.

PDRs = JB actually detected.

JB Airport Interceptions 

County

Total

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Alameda

15

3

11

1

Fresno

14

4

10

Los Angeles

893

107

241

221

79

62

15

86

21

38

7

16

Orange

12

3

3

3

1

2

Sacramento

48

6

2

2

25

4

3

4

2

San Bernardino

154

13

66

16

20

12

27

San Diego

29

6

4

5

5

1

8

Santa Clara

1

1

 

These were intercepted on incoming aircraft flights.

JB County Rejections

 

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Alameda

1

3

5

1

2

0

0

0

3

1

19

10

Butte

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

Calaveras

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

1

0

1

0

Contra Costa

0

14

14

7

3

5

1

0

2

3

5

0

El Dorado

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Fresno

6

0

1

9

8

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

Humboldt

0

0

0

13

9

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Los Angeles

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

Orange

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Placer

4

6

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

5

3

0

Riverside

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Sacramento

1

6

0

0

3

6

2

1

0

1

0

0

San Bernardino

0

0

0

3

22

1

0

2

0

0

0

0

San Diego

4

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

San Joaquin

1

0

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

San Jose

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

San Luis Obispo

6

8

11

0

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

San Mateo

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

0

Santa Barbara

0

0

0

2

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

Santa Clara

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

2

0

Santa Cruz

32

31

31

10

15

11

0

3

0

1

12

1

Shasta

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Solano

0

0

0

0

32

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Sonoma

0

2

7

9

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tulare

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Yuba

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0


These are rejections made of incoming parcel shipments which do not meet the requirements of our JB Exterior Quarantine.

CDFA also conducts inspections of outdoor items from the east coast for the gypsy moth. During these inspections an adult JB was found in Orange County in 2007 and Humboldt County in 2015 associated with outdoor items being moved here from the east coast. In 2011 the Fresno County dog team intercepted JB in a single plant being shipped into the state through a parcel service.

blue wedge Pest Detection Efforts Directed at JB

In California, trapping for JB has occurred for many years. Approximately 12,000 traps are placed and monitored statewide during the JB flight season. General residential trapping for JB is currently conducted at two traps per square mile. If a JB is detected, then intensive trapping is triggered. The objective is to determine the extent and epicenter of an infestation. The trap density is increased to 50 traps within the one-square-mile core surrounding each adult find (0.5-mile radius). This may be increased to 100, 160 or 640 traps to further refine the data about the population if additional beetles are detected, and additional traps may be placed in the buffers. In addition, the trap density is 25 traps per square mile in a one-mile buffer area surrounding the core, and five traps per square mile in a two-mile buffer area surrounding this buffer, thereby resulting in a 49-square-mile area (3.5-mile radius). Traps in the core are monitored daily and buffer traps are monitored at least once during the first week following a detection, and all traps are monitored weekly thereafter. Visual surveys may occur up to 400 meters around each detection. High hazard JB trapping is also conducted around airports and DHL/FedEx/UPS facilities. In California, trapping at airports was first implemented in 1945.

blue wedge California JB Infestation History

Despite  the numerous instances in which our efforts have succeed in keeping JB from entering California, the pest has been introduced into and caused incipient infestations several times in the state. The following is a chronology of JB eradications in California. Each time JB has been introduced, it has been successfully eradicated. The fact that JB has been introduced numerous times into the state and subsequently eradicated supports the contention that JB can be successfully eradicated from the two current infestations in Sacramento County.

Japanese Beetle Eradications in California

Year(s) of Finds

City

County

Adults

Larvae

1951*

Lennox (LAX)

Los Angeles

1

0

1954*

Hawthorne (LAX)

Los Angeles

1

0

1956*

Fairfield (TAFB)

Solano

1

0

1961-1962

Sacramento/West Sacramento

Sacramento/Yolo

449

71

1973-1974

Balboa Park

San Diego

24

0

1974*

San Diego (SAN)

San Diego

1

0

1983-1984**

Orangevale/Citrus Heights

Sacramento

93

8

2002*

Rancho Cordova (MHF)

Sacramento

5

0

2006-2007

Vista

San Diego

3

0

2010-2012, 2014

Fair Oaks

Sacramento

10

0

2014-2015

Carmichael

Sacramento

10

0

* = Trapped at or near Los Angeles Airport (LAX), Mather Field Airport (MHF), San Diego Airport (SAN), or Travis Air Force Base (TAFB). Considered quarantine treatments at point of introduction.
** = This was the only time CDFA implemented a JB Interior Quarantine, from 1983-87.


blue wedge 2016 JB Detections

  • Trap detections outside high risk facilities (3 adults):
    • 1 adult in Hawaiian Gardens (Los Angeles County)
    • 1 adult in La Palma (Orange County)
    • 1 adult in Carmichael (Sacramento County)
  • Trap detections at high risk facilities:
    • 20 adults at airports and freight forward facilities in Los Angeles, Orange, Sacramento, San Bernardino and San Diego counties
  • Aircraft visual inspection detections (untrapped):
    • Adults found on 108 aircraft at airports in Alameda, Los Angeles, Orange, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego and Santa Clara counties

blue wedge JB Detected in Sacramento County 1987 to 2015

The two lists below include all beetles trapped or visually collected in the environment in Sacramento County since 1987 (the earliest year for which records have been entered into the CDFA electronic records database).  The lists do not include beetles found on planes during inspections.

A. High Hazard Detections - Trapped

This list summarizes the JB trapped at or just outside the two major airports for cargo planes in Sacramento County, namely Sacramento International (SMF) and Mather Field (MHF). They are presumed to be the result of JB leaving the planes upon arrival, so they normally do not trigger treatments. However, because there were five beetles in 2002 at Mather Field, the CDFA did treat the turf on the airport and 16 bordering trailer park properties with imidacloprid that year as a precaution. 

Year

Detections

Location

1991

1

SMF

1996

2

MHF and SMF

2000

1

MHF

2002

5

MHF

2003

2

MHF and SMF

2005

1

SMF

2006

2

MHF

2011

1

SMF

2012

1

MHF


B. Residential Detections - Trapped or Visual

This list summarizes the JB trapped or collected visually in residential neighborhoods outside of the high hazard airport trapping in Sacramento County.

Year

Detections

Location and Comments

1997

1

Fair Oaks; 2.5 miles SE of current Fair Oaks and 4.3 miles NE of current Carmichael infestations; trapped; no treatment

1998


1


Carmichael; 620 meters NE of first find in current Carmichael project; adult reportedly collected by resident who turned it in said it was collected at that address "a number of years ago"; no treatment

2010

1

Fair Oaks; current project area; trapped; treatment occurred

2011

2

Fair Oaks; current project area; trapped; treatment occurred

2012

4

Fair Oaks; current project area; trapped; treatment occurred

2014

3

Fair Oaks; current project area; trapped; treatment occurred

2014

3

Carmichael; current project area; trapped; treatment occurred

2015

7

Carmichael; current project area; trapped; treatment occurred


blue wedge Pesticide Monitoring

At the project sites impartial third-party monitoring is conducted. A pesticide monitoring program is used to evaluate program effectiveness and environmental impact.  Pesticide monitoring is a cooperative effort involving state and county personnel. The evaluation is designed to effectively address agency, cooperator, and public concerns.

The Sacramento County Agricultural Commissioner's Pesticide Use Enforcement staff makes regular inspections of mixing/loading, equipment and treatment activities, and pesticide container storage.

CDPR's Division of Pest Management Environmental Hazards Assessment Program staff monitor for detectable levels of pesticides in and around treatment areas. This may include sampling of air, foliage, food crops, water, soil, or other media. Monitoring results will indicate program effectiveness by measuring persistence of pesticides in pest host materials, and discover any environmental impacts by measuring residues in non-target environmental components.

CDFA has a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the State Water Resources Control Board to ensure no pollutants are discharged into a body of water. CDFA has never failed to comply with the terms of its NPDES permit.



Pest Videos

Concerning the Japanese Beetle

Eradicating a serious pest of agriculture, horticulture and landscapes.(6:27)

1 of 3