schreberi J.F. Gmel.][MUHSC][CDFA list: B] Map
of Distribution Photographs
DESCRIPTION:Spreading perennial to 0.5 m tall, with branched
stems that root at the lower nodes. Although
it is a widespread noxious weed of turf, pastures, orchards,
and nurseries in the Central and Eastern U.S., nimblewill
is a fairly new introduction with a limited distribution in California.
Native to Eastern U.S., Texas, Eastern Mexico, and South America.
sheaths resemble those of mature plants. Blades ~25 mm long, 1-3
mm wide. Collar white, lacks long hairs on margins.
often grow prostrate at the base, rooting at the nodes, with terminal
portions curved upwards (decumbent). Leaves rolled in bud.
Blades short (3-9 cm long), 1.5-6 mm wide, flat, glabrous except
for sparse long hairs near sheath. Ligules membranous, <
0.5 mm long, truncate, minutely toothed. Sheaths open,
slightly flattened, membranous along margins. Auricles lacking.
Collar region has a few long hairs near the margins at
the position of the auricles.
and UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES:Roots shallow, fibrous. Lower stems typically root
at nodes, but do not form definite creeping stolons.
Panicles lax, often drooping, loosely flowered,
3-15 cm long, narrow (2-10 mm wide), with ascending to
erect branches. Spikelets stalked, 1(2)-flowered, break apart
above the glumes. Glumes 1 or 2, usually < 0.5 mm
long. Lemmas ~ 2 mm long, 3-veined, sometimes purplish, tipped
with an awn 1.5-5 mm long. Floret base (callus) with a
tuft of short hairs. Caryopsis football-shaped, reddish-brown,
~ 1-1.5 mm long, shed with lemma and palea.
CHARACTERISTICS:Foliage turns brown in winter, but stems survive
and resprout the following spring.
places, forest sites, and cultivated fields in California. Roadsides,
landscaped areas, fields, orchards, nurseries, turf, and woodlands
elsewhere. Grows best in damp, often shady places on moist, fertile
California. Sacramento Valley (Sacramento Co, near border with
Yolo Co.), northern and central Sierra Nevada foothills (Nevada,
Mariposa cos.). To 1200 m (4000 ft). Also, central and eastern
by seed and vegetatively from
lower stem nodes. Seed appears to require an afterripening
period and germinates in spring. Light and cold, moist conditions
(stratification) increase germination. Seed retained on parent
plants through the winter can become dormant and unable to germinate
the following spring.
FAVORING/DISCOURAGING SURVIVAL:Plants do not tolerate regular cultivation.
SPECIES:Bermuda grass [Cynodon
dactylon (L.) Pers.] and creeping bentgrass [Agrostis
stolonifera L.] have growth habits similar to nimblewill.
Unlike nimblewill, Bermuda grass has ligules that
consist of a ring of white hairs ~ 1 mm long, with a few
longer hairs at the margin. Creeping bentgrass has rounded,
membranous ligules 2-5 mm long, without hairs near