Wild garlic [Allium vineale L.][ALLVI][CDFA list: B] Photographs Map of Distribution

Panicled onion [Allium paniculatum L. var. paniculatum][Bayer code: none][CDFA list: B] Photographs Map of Distribution

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SYNONYMS:wild garlic: field garlic, scallions, wild onion, crow garlic

GENERAL DESCRIPTION:Noxious bulbous perennials with grass-like leaves.

SEEDLINGS:Leaves similar to mature leaves, but much smaller.

MATURE PLANT:Leaves basal, linear, glabrous, sheathing at the bases.

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ROOTS and UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES:Bulbs consist of a short, thick stem axis (basal plate) with a growing point surrounded by fleshy scale leaves. Short, firbrous roots develop from the bottom of the basal plate. Soft and hard-coated bulblets are produced in the axils of the scale leaves.

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FLOWERS:Umbels of flowers +/- spherical, with 1 or more papery bracts below. Petals separate.

FRUITS and SEEDS:Capsules +/- ovoid. Seeds dull black, minutely wrinkled.

POSTSENESCENCE CHARACTERISTICS:Leaves die back in summer, but old scapes with capsules can persist into fall or winter.

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HABITAT:Disturbed sites, vineyards, orchards, cultivated areas. Plants thrive in areas that receive summer moisture.

DISTRIBUTION:Uncommon. San Francisco Bay region, lowlands of the southern North Coast Ranges, northern Central Coast.

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PROPAGATION/PHENOLOGY:Primary growth period is early spring to summer. Seed, bulblets, and bulbils disperse primarily through human activities associated with agriculture.

MANAGEMENT FAVORING/DISCOURAGING SURVIVAL:Infestations are difficult to control because the bulbs are hard to eliminate. Repeated cultivation every 2-3 weeks from late fall through spring for several years can prevent seed and aerial bulbil or seed production and help deplete bulb energy reserves. Herbicide treatments just before flowering (bud break) combined with cultivation in late summer or fall can give good control, but may need to be repeated for several years. Cultivation is most effective under dry conditions.

SIMILAR SPECIES:There are numerous native Allium species in California, several of which are rare. However, native onions are typically not weedy. Only wild garlic develops aerial bulbils, and only panicled onion has an inflorescence bract that extends about 4-9 cm beyond the flowers. False garlic [Nothoscordum inodorum (Aiton) Nicholson] is a noxious weed that resembles panicled onion and lacks an onion or garlic odor when crushed. Unlike panicled onion, false garlic has petals that are fused at the base forming a short tube.

CONTROL METHODS: Prevention and control: These species generally impart an undesirable garlic or onion type flavor to contaminated food products including cereal grains, milk, meat, eggs, and poultry. These species reproduce by seed, underground bulblets, and aerial bulbils in the case of Allium vineale. Tillage may reduce seed production, but new plants rapidly emerge from underground bulbs. Repeated tillage may eventually reduce bulb reserves and result in plants with less vigor. At low densities, plants may be carefully removed by hand-pulling. Competitive crops that shade these species may also improve control. Effective herbicides include 2,4-D, triclopyr and dicamba.

Ferguson, G. P., G. E. Coats, G. B. Wilson and D. R. Shaw. 1992. Postemergence control of wild garlic (Allium vineale) in turfgrass. Weed Technology 6(1): 144-148.
Fitzsimmons, J. P. and L. C. Burrill. 1993. Wild Garlic (Allium vineale L.). Pacific Northwest Extension Bulletin 444. 2 pp.
Gast, R. E., R. A. Liebl, and F. W. Slife. 1990. Wild garlic (Allium vineale) control with thifensulfuron and DPX-L5300. Weed Technology 4(3): 592-597.
Leys, A. R. and F. W. Slife 1988. Absorption and translocation of carbon-14 chlorsulfuron and carbon-14 metsulfuron in wild garlic (Allium vineale). Weed Science 36(1): 1-4.
Leys, A. R. and F. W. Slife 1987. Comparison of chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron for control of Allium vineale L. Weed Research 27(1): 35-42.
Leys, A. and F. W. Slife 1986. The response of wild garlic (Allium vineale) to the timing of spray applications of chlorsulfuron. Weed Science 34(5): 718-723.
Khodayari, K., R. E. Frans, et al. 1985. Evaluation of chlorsulfuron in wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Forest) and in a wheat-soybean (Glycine max) double-cropping system. Weed Science 33(5): 746-749.
Peske, S. T. and A. H. Boyd 1985. Separation of wild garlic (Allium vineale) from wheat with a gravity table. Seed Science and Technology 13(1): 129-138.

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