Wild garlic [Allium
vineale L.][ALLVI][CDFA list: B] Photographs
Map of Distribution
Panicled onion [Allium
paniculatum L. var. paniculatum][Bayer code: none][CDFA list: B]
SYNONYMS:wild garlic: field garlic, scallions, wild onion, crow
DESCRIPTION:Noxious bulbous perennials with grass-like
to mature leaves, but much smaller.
basal, linear, glabrous, sheathing at the bases.
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and UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES:Bulbs consist of a short, thick stem axis (basal
plate) with a growing point surrounded by fleshy scale leaves.
Short, firbrous roots develop from the bottom of the basal plate.
Soft and hard-coated bulblets are produced in the axils of the
FLOWERS:Umbels of flowers
+/- spherical, with 1 or more papery bracts below. Petals separate.
and SEEDS:Capsules +/- ovoid. Seeds dull black, minutely wrinkled.
CHARACTERISTICS:Leaves die back in summer, but old scapes with capsules
can persist into fall or winter.
vineyards, orchards, cultivated areas. Plants thrive in areas
that receive summer moisture.
Francisco Bay region, lowlands of the southern North Coast Ranges,
northern Central Coast.
period is early spring to summer. Seed, bulblets, and bulbils
disperse primarily through human activities associated with agriculture.
FAVORING/DISCOURAGING SURVIVAL:Infestations are difficult to control because the
bulbs are hard to eliminate. Repeated cultivation every 2-3 weeks
from late fall through spring for several years can prevent seed
and aerial bulbil or seed production and help deplete bulb energy
reserves. Herbicide treatments just before flowering (bud break)
combined with cultivation in late summer or fall can give good
control, but may need to be repeated for several years. Cultivation
is most effective under dry conditions.
are numerous native Allium species in California, several of which are
rare. However, native onions are typically not weedy. Only wild garlic
develops aerial bulbils, and only panicled onion has an inflorescence
bract that extends about 4-9 cm beyond the flowers. False garlic [Nothoscordum
inodorum (Aiton) Nicholson] is a noxious weed that resembles panicled
onion and lacks an onion or garlic odor when crushed. Unlike
panicled onion, false garlic has petals that are fused at the
base forming a short tube.
and control: These species generally impart an undesirable garlic or onion type
flavor to contaminated food products including cereal grains, milk, meat, eggs,
and poultry. These species reproduce by seed, underground bulblets, and aerial
bulbils in the case of Allium vineale. Tillage may reduce seed production, but
new plants rapidly emerge from underground bulbs. Repeated tillage may eventually
reduce bulb reserves and result in plants with less vigor. At low densities,
plants may be carefully removed by hand-pulling. Competitive crops that shade
these species may also improve control. Effective herbicides include 2,4-D,
triclopyr and dicamba.
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