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Plant Pest Diagnostics Center - Entomology Laboratory

Research Programs - Insecta: Diptera
Asiloidea: Scenopinidae

Window Flies of the World
(Diptera: Scenopinidae)

Metatrichia bulbosa

Welcome to the Window-fly website. The study of scenopinid evolution and biodiversity is an important part of the Diptera research programs of Steve Gaimari and Shaun Winterton, who both work on Asiloidea and 'Therevoid'-clade systematics. The current project is supported by an NSF grant to both of them (DEB-0614213). Scenopinidae are a poorly studied group of flies that show a tremendous wealth of unexplored morphological and biological diversity. This site is still under construction, but already contains an extensive bibliogrpahy of Scenopinidae literature, a checklist of world species, and a dichotomous key to genera. Shortly, a full catalogue of the family will be finished, and interactive Lucid3 keys, fact sheets and image galleries will be placed on this site. Please check back frequently for updates.

Scenopinidae, the window-flies, are a cosmopolitan group of flies with adults that are typically small and dark with a body size rarely greater than 5.0 mm. While found in a variety of habitats, by far the greatest diversity of this group is in arid regions, where the dry sandy soils provide a suitable habitat for the larvae. As larvae, scenopinids are elongate, fossorial predators of arthropods in friable soils and leaf litter, although larvae have also been reared from, or suspected of breeding in, habitats as diverse as galleries of wood-boring insects, birds nests, mammal nest holes, termite mounds, bat guano, beehives and stored products (Kelsey 1969, Rahman et al. 1981, Yucel 1988, Gnaspini 1989, Yao & Lo 1992, Dobson 1999). A single case of human urogenital myasis is recorded for a larva of Scenopinus Latreille (Thompson et al. 1970), but this appears to be exceptional.

Some adult scenopinids apparently do not to feed (e.g. Belosta Hardy), but many are nectar and honeydew feeders and are often collected by sweeping flowers and foliage (Kelsey 1975a, 1987). Adults of some species (e.g. Scenopinus spp.) are often collected on windows inside human dwellings due to their predation as larvae on pests associated with human activities; hence leading to their common name as window-flies (Kelsey 1969, Kelsey 1981a,b,c, Cole 1923, Melander 1950).

Scenopinidae are placed in the superfamily Asiloidea, and had long been accepted as the sister group to the stiletto-flies (Therevidae) based on secondary segmentation of the larval abdomen (Woodley 1989). Using morphological evidence, Sinclair et al. (1994) and Yeates (1994, 2002) showed that Scenopinidae and Therevidae are closely related to Apsilocephalidae, a hypothesis supported by 28S ribosomal and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1-a) sequence data (Yang et al. 2000, Wiegmann et al. 2003) Using 28S rDNA Yeates et al. (2003) placed the newly described family Ocoidae as sister to Scenopinidae and Therevidae. While the monophyly of the 'therevoid' clade is relatively well supported in their analysis, the relationships between the four individual families are not. Unfortunately the larvae of both Apsilocephalidae and Ocoidae are unknown, so we cannot determine whether they too have secondarily segmented abdomens. Moreover, several authors have suggested that the lack of clear synapomorphies supporting the Therevidae may be indicative of Therevidae being paraphyletic with respect to Scenopinidae (Woodley 1989, Yeates 1992, Yeates & Wiegmann 1999).

Twenty-four extant genera of Scenopinidae are presently recognised; (Table 1) containing more than 420 described species worldwide (Kelsey 1973b, Yeates 1992, Nagatomi et al. 1994). Kelsey (1969 to 1989) contributed significantly to our present knowledge of Scenopinidae taxonomy, describing numerous new species and genera from all major biogeographical regions. Unfortunately, this work was not based on rigorous cladistic methodology, so the predictive value of Kelsey's work is limited. The genus and tribal level relationships of the Scenopinidae are not known and discovering these is the next step in furthering our understanding of the group. To date, only Yeates (1992) and Nagatomi et al. (1994) have examined the Scenopinidae in a phylogenetic context. In a cladistic analysis of 25 adult morphological characters, Yeates (1992) justified the inclusion of Prorates, Caenotus, Alloxytropus and Caenotoides in Scenopinidae and erected the first robust subfamilial classification of the family. Three subfamilies are now recognized, the basal Caenotinae (containing Caenotus), the Proratinae (containing Prorates, Alloxytropus, Caenotoides, Jackhallia Nagatomi & Lui and Acaenotus Nagatomi & Yanagida) and the Scenopininae (containing all other scenopinid genera). Unfortunately, Yeates (1992) did not examine scenopinine relationships and included only two genera from the subfamily in the analysis. Nagatomi et al. (1994) subsequently examined the Proratinae (inclusive of Caenotus), describing two new genera (Acaenotus and Jackhallia) and proposing several competing hypotheses of generic relationships within the subfamily. Such contradictory proposals by Nagatomi et al. (1994) has not generally lead to better understanding of proratine relationships, but did provide important detailed morphological studies of the group. Recently Winterton & Metz (2005) described an entirely new genus of scenopinid from Namibia (i.e. Cyrtosathe Winterton & Metz) that exhibits characteristics from all three subfamilies. Cyrtosathe is presently placed as incertae sedis within Scenopinidae until a complete phylogenetic analysis and detailed reappraisal of the classification can be undertaken to place this new taxon. Just when we thought that the relationships of Scenopinidae subfamilies had started to become clearer, the discovery of this enigmatic new genus has forced us to reevaluate our basic definitions of the subfamilies themselves. Moreover, the phylogenetic relationships of the bulk of Scenopinidae, i.e. those genera placed in the Scenopininae and representing over 85% of the species diversity of the family, are still unknown and remain a significant challenge. Clearly, the relationships of the 'basal' scenopinid subfamilies (Caenotinae and Proratinae) with respect to the Scenopininae, along with scenopinine relationships, need to be tested fully with more extensive exemplar sampling from all groups. These are central questions for my research on these flies.

A preliminary phylogeny for the family is presented below, based on the combined morphological and molecular (COI, CAD, 16S) data.

Preliminary scenopinid phylogeny

World Checklist

Caenotinae

Proratinae

Scenopininae

Subfamily incertae sedis


Family: SCENOPINIDAE

CAENOTINAE

Caenotus Cole 1923a: 14

  • hospes Melander 1950: 149, Nearctic
  • inornatus Cole 1923a: 16, Nearctic
  • mexicanus Nagatomi & Yanagida 1994: 159, Nearctic
  • minutus Cole 1923a: 15, Nearctic
  • tanyrhynchus Metz 2003: 4, Nearctic

PRORATINAE

Acaenotus Nagatomi & Yanagida in Nagatomi, Liu & Yanagida 1994: 142

  • canus (Melander) 1950: 149 (Caenotus), Nearctic

Alloxytropus Bezzi 1925b: 186

  • anomalus Bezzi 1925b: 187, Palearctic
  • bezzi Paramonov 1929: 83, Palearctic
  • elias Winterton & Kerr 2006: 42, Palearctic
  • kerzhneri Zaitzev 1972b: 860, Palearctic
  • lehri Zaitzev 1972: 455, Palearctic

Caenotoides Hall 1972: 46

  • californica Hall 1972: 48, Nearctic
  • idahoensis Hall 1972: 49, Nearctic
  • mexicana Hall 1972: 49, Nearctic

Jackhallia Nagatomi & Liu 1994: 166

  • argentinae Nagatomi & Liu 1994: 167, Neotropical

Prorates Melander 1906: 372

  • arctos Hall 1972: 42, Nearctic
  • ballmeri Nagatomi & Liu 1994: 171, Nearctic
  • boydi Hall 1972: 41, Nearctic
  • claripennis Melander 1906: 373, Nearctic
  • frommeri Hall 1972: 45, Nearctic
  • melanderi Hall 1972: 43, Nearctic
  • nigrescens Hall 1972: 44, Nearctic
  • painteri Nagatomi & Liu 1994: 181, Nearctic

Proratites Grimaldi & Cumming 1999: 29

SCENOPININAE

Belosta D.E. Hardy 1944a: 37

  • albicomula Kelsey 1971d: 34, Nearctic
  • albipilosa D.E. Hardy 1944a: 38, Nearctic
  • flaviceps (Coquillett) 1902: 102 (Pseudatrichia), Nearctic
  • pilosa (Coquillett) 1902: 102 (Pseudatrichia), Nearctic
  • scutulamacula Kelsey 1971d: 35, Nearctic
  • telfordi Kelsey 1969: 278, Nearctic
  • termitophaga Kelsey 1969: 278, Nearctic
  • viticolapennis Kelsey 1969: 281, Nearctic

Brevitrichia D.E. Hardy 1944a: 32

  • addacifrons Kelsey 1969: 169, Nearctic
  • albanota Kelsey 1971d: 17, Nearctic
  • arena Kelsey 1971d: 18, Nearctic
  • argentaurba Kelsey 1971d: 19, Nearctic
  • arnaudi Kelsey 1969: 171, Nearctic
  • aspinosa Kelsey 1969: 172, Nearctic
  • badiclitella Kelsey 1971d: 19, Nearctic
  • beameri Kelsey 1969: 174, Nearctic
    • [=griseola Cresson (nec Coquillett) 1907: 113]
  • boharti Kelsey 1969: 175, Nearctic
  • castanea Kelsey 1969: 177, Nearctic
  • coquilletti Kelsey 1969: 177, Nearctic
    • [=griseola Coquillett 1900: 501 ( part)]
  • daileyi Kelsey 1971d: 20, Nearctic
  • davisi Kelsey 1969: 180, Nearctic
  • dicksoni Kelsey 1969: 182, Nearctic
  • downeyi Kelsey 1969: 184, Nearctic
  • flocki Kelsey 1969: 186, Nearctic
  • forficicruxa Kelsey 1971d: 21, Nearctic
  • griffini Kelsey 1969: 186, Nearctic
  • griseola (Coquillett) 1900: 501 (Pseudatrichia), Nearctic
  • halli Kelsey 1969: 192, Nearctic
  • helenae (James) 1938: 22 (Pseudatrichia), Nearctic
  • hodgdeni Kelsey 1969: 194, Nearctic
  • inferacanna Kelsey 1971d: 21, Nearctic
  • insulana (Cole) 1923b: 462 (Pseudatrichia), Nearctic
  • irwini Kelsey 1971d: 22, Nearctic
  • kerni Kelsey 1969: 196, Nearctic
  • melanderi Kelsey 1969: 199, Nearctic
  • minuta Kelsey 1969: 201, Nearctic
  • miraloma Kelsey 1971d: 23, Nearctic
  • nayariti Kelsey 1971d: 23, Nearctic
  • nevada Kelsey 1971d: 24, Nearctic
  • oculivirida Kelsey 1969: 202, Nearctic
  • ordwayi Kelsey 1969: 204, Nearctic
  • palida Kelsey 1971d: 25, Nearctic
  • palmacana Kelsey 1971d: 26, Nearctic
  • piscifonta Kelsey 1971d: 27, Nearctic
  • powelli Kelsey 1974b: 139, Nearctic
  • pruinosa Kelsey 1969: 206, Nearctic
  • salvadorensis Kelsey 1974b: 139, Nearctic
  • schlingeri Kelsey 1969: 207, Nearctic
  • scitulaesca Kelsey 1969: 209, Nearctic
  • septispina Kelsey 1971d: 28, Nearctic
  • timberlakei Kelsey 1969: 210, Nearctic
  • wilcoxi Kelsey 1971d: 29, Nearctic
  • yucatani Kelsey 1969: 212, Nearctic

Caenoneura Kröber 1923: 75

  • nigra Kelsey 1969: 163, Palearctic
  • robusta Kröber 1923: 75, Palearctic

Heteromphrale Kröber 1937: 221

  • chilensis (Kröber) 1928: 31 (Pseudatrichia), Neotropical
  • cyanops (Edwards) 1932: 259 (Pseudomphrale), Neotropical

Irwiniana Kelsey 1971b: 279

  • glabrifrons Kelsey 1971b: 282, Neotropical
  • graciliparamera Kelsey 1971b: 283, Neotropical
  • irwini Kelsey 1971b: 281, Neotropical

Metatrichia Coquillett 1900: 500

  • asiatica Krivosheina & Krivosheina 1999: 849, Palearctic
  • bilituua Kelsey 1981: 6, Palearctic
  • bulbosus (Osten Sacken) 1877: 275 (Scenopinus), Nearctic
  • deserticola Krivosheina & Krivosheina 1999: 851, Palearctic
  • friedbergi Krivosheina & Krivosheina 1999: 852, Palearctic
  • lophyrosoma (Speiser) 1920: 216 (Pseudomphrale), Afrotropical
  • mongolica Kelsey 1981: 85, Palearctic
  • nigeriana Kelsey 1984: 57, Afrotropical
  • palaestinensis (Kröber) 1937: 229 (Pseudomphrale), Palearctic
  • papuana Kelsey 1970a: 44, Australasian
  • pria Yeates & Grimaldi 1993: 2, Amber, Dominican Republic (Oligo-Miocene) [extinct]
  • robusta Kröber 1913: 180, Neotropical
  • stevensoni (Bezzi) 1925: 96 (Pseudomphrale), Afrotropical
    • [=africana Lindner, 1962: 2]
  • thailandica Kelsey 1970a: 46, Oriental
  • waterhousei (Paramonov) 1955: 640 (Pseudomphrale), Australasian

Neopseudatrichia Kelsey 1969: 299

  • canei Kelsey 1969: 300, Australasian
    • [=mariaensis Paramonov (nec. G.H. Hardy) 1955: 639]
  • inglewoodi Kelsey 1970b: 141, Australasian
  • kewi Kelsey 1969: 300, Australasian
  • mariaensis (G.H. Hardy) 1933: 419 (Pseudatrichia), Australasian
  • monteithi Kelsey 1970b: 144, Australasian

Paramonova Kelsey 1970b: 125

  • arila Kelsey 1987:10, Australasian
  • brevipalpa Kelsey 1970b: 127, Australasian
  • bungabandii Kelsey 1975a: 205, Australasian
  • burrijuanna Kelsey 1987:11, Australasian
  • bushi Kelsey 1971c: 203, Australasian
  • collessi (Kelsey) 1969: 307 (Riekiella), Australasian
  • complexa (Kelsey) 1969: 309 (Riekiella), Australasian
  • dycei (Kelsey) 1969: 310 (Riekiella), Australasian
  • emarginata Kelsey 1970b: 129, Australasian
  • fonsamniculi Kelsey 1980a: 9, Australasian
  • hamata Kelsey 1980a: 10, Australasian
  • mangarra Kelsey 1987: 12, Australasian
  • poocheraiana Kelsey 1987: 13, Australasian
  • quadrifida (Kelsey) 1969: 313 (Riekiella), Australasian
  • taylori (Kelsey) 1969: 315 (Riekiella), Australasian
  • uncata (Kelsey) 1969: 315 (Riekiella), Australasian
  • zentae Kelsey 1975a: 207, Australasian

Paratrichia Kelsey 1969: 320

  • lobosa Kelsey 1969: 320, Australasian
  • spicata Kelsey 1975a: 208, Australasian
  • westralica (Paramonov) 1955: 641 (Pseudomphrale), Australasian

Prepseudatrichia Kelsey 1969: 286

  • kelseyi Krivosheina 1980: 198, Palearctic
  • mateui Kelsey 1969: 289, Palearctic, Afrotropical
  • stenogaster (Séguy) 1931: 114 (Scenopinus), Afrotropical
  • violacea Kelsey 1969: 291, Afrotropical

Propebrevitrichia Kelsey 1969: 281

  • bonnieana Kelsey 1976: 961, Afrotropical
  • botterkloofensis Kelsey 1976: 963, Afrotropical
  • canuta Kelsey 1976: 963, Afrotropical
  • dionaeforma Kelsey 1976: 964, Afrotropical
  • falcata Kelsey 1976: 967, Afrotropical
  • gobabebensis Kelsey 1976: 968, Afrotropical
  • irwini Kelsey 1976: 970, Afrotropical
  • langebaanensis Kelsey 1976: 971, Afrotropical
  • pakhiusensis Kelsey 1976: 973, Afrotropical
  • patersonensis Kelsey 1976: 975, Afrotropical
  • quadrispina Kelsey 1971a: 170, Afrotropical
  • serowensis Winterton 2005: 2, Afrotropical
  • stuckenbergi Kelsey 1969: 283, Afrotropical
  • swakopensis Kelsey 1976: 976, Afrotropical
  • turneri Kelsey 1969: 284, Afrotropical

Pseudatrichia Osten Sacken 1877: 276
[=Atrichia Loew, 1866: 42]

  • albocincta Van Duzee 1926: 164, Nearctic
  • atombomba Kelsey 1969: 225, Nearctic
    • [=unicolor Cresson (not Coquillett), 1907: 113. (part)]
  • bakeri Kelsey 1969: 227, Nearctic
  • barnesi Kelsey 1969: 229, Nearctic
  • biacristerna Kelsey 1969: 230, Nearctic
  • bryanti Kelsey 1969: 231, Nearctic
  • bupennis Kelsey 1969: 232, Nearctic
  • cajoni Kelsey 1969: 234, Nearctic
  • cloudcrofti Kelsey 1969: 236, Neartic
    • [=unicolor Cresson (nec. Coquillett) 1907: 113. (part)]
  • cockerelli Kelsey 1969: 236, Nearctic
  • concava Kelsey 1969: 239, Nearctic
  • convexa Kelsey 1969: 241, Nearctic
  • eaithales Kelsey 1969: 241, Nearctic
  • evergreeni Kelsey 1969: 244, Nearctic
  • garretti Kelsey 1969: 244, Nearctic
  • gracilipennis Kelsey 1969: 247, Nearctic
  • granti Kelsey 1974b: 137, Nearctic
  • howdeni Kelsey 1969: 247, Nearctic
  • idahoensis Kelsey 1971d: 30, Nearctic
  • jamesi Kelsey 1969: 250, Nearctic
  • leechi Kelsey 1969: 250, Nearctic
  • longiventris Kelsey 1969: 253, Neotropical
  • longurio (Loew) 1866: 42 (Atrichia), Nearctic
  • macalpeni Kelsey 1974b: 137, Nearctic
  • melanderi Kelsey 1969: 256, Nearctic
  • morlani Kelsey 1969: 258, Nearctic
  • nordeni Kelsey 1969: 260, Nearctic
  • parva D.E. Hardy 1944a: 36, Nearctic
  • parvipennis Kelsey 1969: 260, Nearctic
  • peromysci Kelsey 1969: 264, Nearctic
  • punctulata D.E. Hardy 1944: 104, Neotropical
  • rufitruncula Kelsey 1971d: 31, Nearctic
  • sabroskyi Kelsey 1969: 266, Nearctic
  • saccharcupa Kelsey 1969: 268, Nearctic
  • schlingeri Kelsey 1971d: 32, Nearctic
  • tomichi Kelsey 1974b: 138, Nearctic
  • toupeta Kelsey 1969: 270, Nearctic
  • truncata Kelsey 1969: 270, Nearctic
  • unicolor Coquillett 1900: 500, Nearctic

Pseudomphrale Kröber 1913: 180

  • clausa (Loew) 1873: 150 (Scenopinus), Palearctic
  • crenata (Becker) 1913: 550 (Omphrale), Palearctic
  • dubiosa (Becker) 1913: 551 (Omphrale), Palearctic
  • longirostris (Becker) 1913: 549 (Omphrale), Palearctic
  • miramisho Hassan & El-Hawagry 2001: 3, Palearctic

Riekiella Paramonov 1955: 652

  • arilaringa Kelsey 1987:16, Australasian
  • arnhemi Kelsey 1975a: 210, Australasian
  • bicornis Paramonov 1955: 653, Australasian
  • binnaliweanda Kelsey 1987:18, Australasian
  • bolgarti (Kelsey) 1969: 55 (Scenopinus), Australasian
  • burririmbija Kelsey 1987:19, Australasian
  • cetrata Kelsey 1971c: 196, Australasian
  • cornuta Kelsey 1971c: 197, Australasian
  • culbara Kelsey 1987: 20, Australasian
  • cuspidata Kelsey 1971c: 198, Australasian
  • denticulata Kelsey 1971c: 200, Australasian
  • kilyalpa Kelsey 1987: 21, Australasian
  • longitermina Kelsey 1975a: 211, Australasian
  • longiventris Kelsey 1969: 312, Australasian
  • malkana Kelsey 1987: 22, Australasian
  • maloga Kelsey 1987: 23, Australasian
  • murrilla Kelsey 1987: 24, Australasian
  • nancyae Kelsey 1987: 25, Australasian
  • nicholsi Kelsey 1971c: 200, Australasian
  • noona Kelsey 1987: 27, Australasian
  • rossi Kelsey 1970b: 123, Australasian
  • rupari Kelsey 1987: 27, Australasian
  • tamala Kelsey 1987: 29, Australasian
  • woodwardi Kelsey 1971c: 201, Australasian
  • yoota Kelsey 1987: 30, Australasian

Scenopinus Latreille 1802: 463
[=Archiscenopinus Enderlein 1914: 25]
[=Astoma Lioy 1864: 762]
[=Atrichia Schrank 1803: 54]
[=Cona Schellenberg 1803: 66]
[=Hypseleura Meigen 1803: 273]
[=Lepidomphrale Kröber 1913: 182]
[=Lucidomphrale Kröber 1937: 222]
[=Omphrale Meigen, 1800: 29 (suppressed)]
[=Omphralosoma Kröber 1937: 222]
[=Paromphrale Kröber 1937: 222]
[=Scenopoeus Agassiz, 1846: 333] [unjustified emendation]
[=Scaenopius Dalla Torre, 1878: 161] [misspelling]
[=Scenopinula Paramonov 1955: 651]

  • adventicius D.E. Hardy 1960: 329, Oceanian [velutinus group]
  • adyeri Kelsey 1987: 4, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • aethiopicus (Lindner) 1955: 20 (Omphrale), Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • afghanistanensis Kelsey 1981b: 88, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • alalacteus Kelsey 1969: 114, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • albicinctus (Rossi) 1794: 69 (Musca), Palearctic [albicinctus group]
    • [=zelleri Loew 1845: 314]
  • albicomus Kelsey 1969: 17, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • albifasciatus (D.E. Hardy) 1944a: 41 (Ompralosoma), Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • albipilosus Kelsey 1971d: 7, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • angustifrons (Kröber) 1913: 197 (Omphrale), Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • antennatus (Kröber) 1914b: 74 (Omphrale), Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • anthrax Kelsey 1969: 51, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • aquelonius Kelsey 1969: 20, Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • arrectus Kelsey 1975a: 198, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • ascensus Kelsey 1987: 6, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • aurantipalpus Kelsey 1971d: 7, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • balteatus Lamb 1922: 363, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • barberi Kelsey 1969: 115, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • beameri var. beameri (D.E. Hardy) 1944a: 43 (Omphrale), Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • beameri var. fusca (D.E. Hardy) 1944a: 43 (Omphrale), Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • bermudaensis Kelsey 1971: 50, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • bicuspis Kelsey 1971c: 185, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • biroi Kertész 1899: 173, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • bouvieri (Séguy) 1920: 317 (Omphrale), Afrotropical, Palearctic (introduced) [albicinctus group]
  • brevicornis Loew 1873: 146, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • breviterminus Kelsey 1969: 21, Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • brittoni Kelsey 1970b: 111, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • brunneus (Kröber) 1913: 192 (Omphrale), Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • bryanti Kelsey 1969: 118, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • bulbapennis Kelsey 1969: 60, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • buscki Kelsey 1969: 119, Neotropical [velutinus group]
  • butleri Kelsey 1969: 121, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • canarius Kelsey 1969: 60, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • casuarinus Kelsey 1975a: 200, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • cavifrons (Kröber) 1937: 231 (Omphrale), Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • chico Kelsey 1969: 122, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • cochisei Kelsey 1969: 124, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • cooki Kelsey 1969: 125, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • cornesi Kelsey 1984: 53, Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
  • cornutus Kelsey 1981: 8, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • cretatus Kelsey 1969: 127, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • cristafrons Kelsey 1971c: 186, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • curticornis (Kröber) 1913: 202 (Omphrale), Neotropical [velutinus group]
  • curtipilosus Kelsey 1969: 63, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • darwini Kelsey 1969: 64, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • deemingi Kelsey 1973a: 154, Afrotropical [fenestralis group]
  • desertus Krivosheina 1980: 199, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • dietricki Kelsey 1971d: 8, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • dilkera Kelsey 1987: 7, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • downesi Kelsey 1971c: 187, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • efflatouni Kelsey 1969: 24, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • electus Adams 1904: 445, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • erugatus Kelsey 1975a: 201, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • estesi Kelsey 1971d: 3, Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • evansi Kelsey 1969: 66, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • eyrei Kelsey 1975a: 202, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • femoratus Macquart 1835: 7, Neotropical [velutinus group]
  • fenestralis (Linnaeus) 1758: 597 (Musca), Cosmopolitan [fenestralis group]
    • [=senilis Fabricius 1794: 331]
    • [=saltitans Scopoli, 1763: 350]
    • [=spoliata Scopoli, 1763: 350]
    • [=fasciata Schrank, 1803: 103]
    • [=pallipes Say, 1823: 100]
    • [=sulcicollis Meigen, 1824: 114]
    • [=domesticus Meigen, 1824: 116]
    • [=rufitarsis Meigen, 1838: 165]
    • [=scutellatus Macquart, 1843: 6-8, plate 1]
    • [=furcinervis Zetterstedt, 1844: 897]
    • [="tarda" Linnaeus,- Haliday, 1851: 138]
    • [=graminicola Zetterstedt, 1859: 6045]
    • [=fuscinervis Schiner, 1862: 159]
    • [=scutellatus var. nigroscutellatus Frey, 1945: 36]
    • [=perkinsi Paramonov (not Hardy), 1955: 651]
  • fijianus (Kröber) 1939: 399 (Omphrale), Australasian [velutinus group]
  • flandersi Kelsey 1969: 132, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • flavipes (Kröber) 1939: 398 (Omphrale), Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • foxi Kelsey 1971d: 9, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • fragosifrons Kelsey 1969: 68, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • fraternus (Kröber) 1923: 81 (Omphrale), Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • freidbergi Kelsey 1981: 10, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • fryeri Kelsey 1969: 97, Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
    • [=longiventris Lamb (not Krober) 1922: 362]
    • [=minusculus Kelsey (not Seguy) 1969: 100]
  • fulignatus Kelsey 1976: 953, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • galapagoensis Kelsey 1970: 96, Oceanian [velutinus group]
  • gariesensis Kelsey 1976: 954, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • glabrifrons Meigen 1824: 114, Cosmopolitan [fenestralis group]
    • [=halterata Meigen 1824: 114]
    • [=orbita Meigen 1824: 114]
    • [=laevifrons Loew 1857: 88]
    • [=glabrifrons var. surcoufi Séguy 1920: 318]
    • [=civiculus G.H. Hardy 1933: 418]
  • gobiensis Kelsey 1981: 89, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • gossypius Kelsey 1969: 133, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • griseus (Kröber) 1913: 191 (Omphrale), Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • gromieri Kelsey 1969: 70, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • hagai Kelsey 1969: 135, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • halteralis Frey 1936: 53, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • harleyi Kelsey 1971c: 187, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • hermonensis Kelsey 1981: 19, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • herzliyanus Kelsey 1981: 12, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • howdeni Kelsey 1969: 137, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • huldanus Kelsey 1981: 13, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • ikoyianus Kelsey 1984: 54, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • inquilinus Séguy 1931: 113, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • japonicus (Séguy) 1920: 318 (Omphrale), Oriental [fenestralis group]
  • johnsoni Kelsey 1971d: 9, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • josius Kelsey 1984: 55, Afrotropical [fenestralis group]
  • kaszabi Kelsey 1981: 92, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • katbergi Kelsey 1969: 72, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • keiseri Kelsey 1969: 74, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • kelseyi Ghorpade 1981: 53, Oriental [albicinctus group]
  • kontagoranus Kelsey 1984: 56, Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
  • kuiterti (D.E. Hardy) 1944a: 46, (Omphrale) Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • lesinensis Strobl 1904: 533, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • limbunyai Kelsey 1971c: 190, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • limpidipennis Loew 1874: 416, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • lincinus Kelsey 1969: 99, Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
  • linsleyanus Kelsey 1974b: 132, Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • longiventris (Kröber) 1913: 206 (Omphrale), Oriental [brevicornis group]
  • lucidus Becker 1902: 39, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • lunulanotafrons Kelsey 1971c: 191, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • maai Kelsey 1970a: 41, Oriental [albicinctus group]
  • maculosus Kelsey 1981: 93, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • madagascariensis Enderlein 1934: 429, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • magdalenai Kelsey 1969: 140, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • magnicornis (Kröber) 1913: 202 (Omphrale), Neotropical [velutinus group]
  • majalcai Kelsey 1974b: 133, Neotropical [velutinus group]
  • mariensis Kelsey 1981b: 88, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • masoni Kelsey 1974b: 134, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • mendumae Kelsey 1971c: 188, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • microgaster (Séguy) 1948: 155 (Omphrale), Oriental [fenestralis group]
  • millarae Kelsey 1971c: 189, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • minusculus (Séguy) 1934: 74 (Omphrale), Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
  • minutus Kelsey 1969: 78, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • miriabilis Adams 1904: 445, Nearctic [velutinus group]
    • [=nubilipes Cresson [nec Say] 1907: 111]
    • [=ramaleyi James 1938: 22]
  • monodi (Séguy) 1933: 122 (Omphrale), Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • montanus Kelsey 1981: 14, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • monterreyi Kelsey 1974b: 134, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • nakkari Kelsey 1987: 8, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • namibensis Kelsey 1976: 954, Afrotropical [fenestralis group]
  • nidorcaupulus Kelsey 1969: 33, Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • niger (De Geer) 1776: 188 (Nemotelus), Palearctic [fenestralis group]
    • [=atra Fallén 1817: 2]
    • [=fenestralis (Fabricius) 1781: 444]
    • [=rugosa Fabricius 1794: 330]
    • [=tarsata Panzer 1809: 20]
    • [=nigripes Meigen 1824: 117]
    • [=fasciata Walker 1851: 85]
  • nigerianus Kelsey 1973a: 154 Afrotropical [fenestralis group]
  • nitidifrons (Kröber) 1913: 194 (Omphrale) Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
    • [=tarsalis Kröber 1913: 196]
  • nitidulus Loew 1873: 149, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • niveus Becker 1907: 61, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • norrisi Kelsey 1969: 82, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • nubilipes Say 1829: 170, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • obregoni Kelsey 1974b: 135, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • oldenbergi (Kröber) 1913: 190 (Omphrale), Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • opaculus Loew 1873: 145, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • opacus De Meijere 1924: 14, Oriental [albicinctus group]
  • orarius Kelsey 1981: 15, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • pakhuisensis Kelsey 1976: 956, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • pallidipennis (Paramonov) 1955: 651 (Scenopinula), Australasian
  • palmulapalpus Kelsey 1969: 85, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • papuanus (Kröber) 1912: 25 (Omphrale), Oriental, Australasian [albicinctus group]
    • [=niger Grimshaw (nec. De Geer) 1901: 11]
    • [=zeylanicus Senior-White 1922: 205]
  • parallelus Kelsey 1969: 103, Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
  • patrizi (Séguy) 1932: 499 (Omphrale), Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • pecki Kelsey 1969: 145, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • peniculus Kelsey 1981: 16, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • perkinsi G.H. Hardy 1942: 202, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • phaidimos Kelsey 1969: 88, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • physadius (Séguy) 1930: 111 (Omphrale), Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • pilosus (Séguy) 1930: 111 (Omphrale), Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • planifrons Kelsey 1981: 20, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • politus Kelsey 1973a: 156, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • pygmaeus Loew 1857: 90, Neotropical [velutinus group]
    • [=albidipennis Loew 1869: 32]
  • reciprocatus Kelsey 1971d: 10, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • reduncus Kelsey 1969: 106, Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
  • renneri Kelsey 1975a: 204, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • retuertensis Carles-Tolrá 2001: 37, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • rossi Kelsey 1969: 148, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • saini Kelsey 1969: 39, Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • sanfordi Kelsey 1971c: 192, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • schroederi (Kröber) 1913: 201 (Omphrale), Neotropical [fenestralis group]
  • schulzi Enderlein 1934: 429, Neotropical [velutinus group]
    • [=caenofrons Kröber 1937: 229]
  • scintellatus Kelsey 1981: 22, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • seftoni Kelsey 1969: 152, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • serratus Kelsey 1969: 153, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • sibiricus Krivosheina 1981: 162, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • sigaloesis Kelsey 1981: 17, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • sinensis (Kröber) 1928: 1 (Omphrale), Oriental [fenestralis group]
  • spurrelli Kelsey 1969: 90, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • squamosus (Villeneuve) 1913: 111 (Omphralosoma), Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • stegmaieri Kelsey 1974b: 135, Neotropical [velutinus group]
  • stuckenbergi Kelsey 1971a: 167, Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
  • telleri Kelsey 1973a: 157, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • tetravirgulatus Kelsey 1981: 9, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • thailandicus Kelsey 1970a: 41, Oriental [albicinctus group]
  • torrensianus Kelsey 1980a: 7, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • transversus Kelsey 1971d: 3, Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • trigelasinus Kelsey 1971c: 194, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • triquetus Kelsey 1971c: 192, Australasian [albicinctus group]
  • turneri Kelsey 1969: 107, Afrotropical [brevicornis group]
  • umkomaasensis Kelsey 1976: 957, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • undulafrons Kelsey 1969: 41, Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • unifasciatus (Kröber) 1913: 195 (Omphrale), Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • ussuriensis Krivosheina 1981: 29, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • valgus (D.E. Hardy) 1944a: 50 (Omphrale), Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • vanduzeei Kelsey 1969: 156, Nearctic
    • [=nubilipes Cole (nec. Say) 1923: 462]
  • varipes Loew 1873: 148, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • velutinus (Kröber) 1913: 203 (Omphrale), Neotropical [velutinus group]
    • [=nubilipes Kröber (nec. Say) 1928: 2]
  • verrucosus Carles-Tolrá 2001: 36, Palearctic [brevicornis group]
  • vesperugocavus Kelsey 1976: 958, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • vitripennis Meigen 1824: 115, Palearctic [fenestralis group]
  • vockerothi Kelsey 1971d: 4, Nearctic [fenestralis group]
  • wahrmani Kelsey 1981: 18, Palearctic [albicinctus group]
  • weemsi Kelsey 1969: 159, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • werneri Kelsey 1969: 160, Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • whittakeri (James) 1955: 47 (Omphrale), Nearctic [velutinus group]
  • zambianus Kelsey 1973a: 158, Afrotropical [albicinctus group]
  • zhelochovtsevi Krivosheina 1981: 160, Palearctic [fenestralis group]

Seguyia Kelsey 1980: 323
[=Seguyella Kelsey 1969: 294]

  • chinchona (Kelsey) 1969: 294 (Seguyella), Oriental
  • deemingi Kelsey 1984: 59, Afrotropical
  • galactica (Séguy) 1938: 334 (Omphrale), Afrotropical
  • maai (Kelsey) 1970a: 46 (Seguyella), Oriental
  • sinaiensis (Kelsey) 1981c: 24 (Seguyella), Palearctic
  • turneri (Kelsey) 1969: 296 (Seguyella), Afrotropical

Stenomphrale Kröber 1937: 220

  • flavoscutellata (Kröber) 1929: 80 (Pseudomphrale), Palearctic
  • teutankhameni (Kröber) 1923: 72 (Pseudomphrale), Palearctic

SUBFAMILY incertae sedis

Cyrtosathe Winterton & Metz 2005: 4


Dichotomous key to subfamilies genera

(modified from Kelsey 1969, etc., Yeates 1992, Nagatomi et al., 1994)


1a. Wing vein M2 absent (Scenopininae)
........... 3
1b. Wing vein M2 present ........... 2
   
2a. Costal vein extending around wing; sensory area on tergite 2 as two hemispherical regions of short setae; gonocoxal apodemes short; aedeagus straight; female tergite 8 with short setae (Caenotinae) [Nearctic] ........... Caenotus
2b. Costal vein ending just beyond vein R5; sensory area on tergite 2 as two hemispherical regions of short setae; gonocoxal apodemes elongate; aedeagus recurved, folded dorsally upon itself; female tergite 8 dorsally covered with greatly elongate setae (subfamily incertae sedis) [Afrotropical - Namibia] ........... Cyrtosathe
2c. Costal vein ending at vein R5; sensory area on tergite 2 as triangular region of setae with truncate apices; gonocoxal apodemes greatly elongate; aedeagus straight; female tergite 8 with short setae (Proratinae) ........... 20
   
3a. Cell R5 open to the tip of wing
........... 4
3b. Cell R5 closed and petiolate ........... 9
   
4a. Vein M1+2 fading out before edge of wing
........... 5
4b. Vein M1+2 reaching edge of wing ........... 6
   
5a. Vein R4 branching before middle of cell R5 [Australian]
........... Scenopinus (part, S. pallidipennis)
5b. Vein R4 branching at or beyond middle of cell R5 [Australian] ........... Riekiella (part)
   
6a. Vein CuA1 normal, reaching edge of wing
........... 7
6b. Vein CuA1 fading out beyond the crossvein m-cu [Afrotropical] ........... Seguyia
   
7a. Head longer than high; long slim flies; often glossy black (resembling Pseudatrichia) [Afrotropical]
........... Prepseudatrichia
7b. Head higher than long; body stout; abdomen broad [Cosmopolitan] ........... Scenopinus ........... 8
   
8a. Large robust flies; antennae long, slender; vein R4 branching from R5 before middle of cell R5; male with 9th tergum 4 lobed
........... S. fenestralis-group
8b. Medium sized flies; antennae variable; vein R4 branching from R5 near middle of cell R5; male with 9th tergum 2-lobed, open ventrally ........... S. albicinctus-group
8c. Medium sized flies; antennae pear-shaped; vein R4 branching from R5 near middle of cell R5; male with basal portion of 9th tergum extending ventrally and with distal portion open; female with 8th sternum longer than tergum and 9th tergum usually with short spines ........... S. brevicornis-group
8d. Medium to small flies; antennae short; vein R4 branching from R5 beyond middle of cell R5; male with 9th tergum 2-lobed, closed below ........... S. velutinus-group
   
9a. Vein R5+M1+2 ending at tip of wing
........... 10
9b. Vein R5+M1+2 bending sharply to end in leading edge [Afrotropical] ........... Caenoneura
   
10a. Long, slender black (usually glossy) flies
........... 11
10b. Brown, tan or gray flies ........... 13
   
11a. Head longer than high; body glabrous
........... 12
11b. Head higher than long, with mouthparts atrophied; body hairy [Neartic] ........... Belosta
   
12a. Tip of cell R5 blunt; male with 9th tergum about as long as high, and as long as 10th tergum; female with 9th tergum and sternum subequal [Nearctic]
........... Pseudatrichia
12b. Tip of cell R5 acute; male with 9th tergum much higher than long, and shorter than 10th tergum; female with 10th tergum with thick spines [Australian] ........... Neopseudatrichia
   
13a. Large robust bodied flies
........... 14
13b. Smaller flies ........... 15
   
14a. Very large flies with broad, blunt abdomens in both sexes; frontal area swollen so that antennae project from middle of head; hairs often flat, scale like [Cosmopolitan]
........... Metatrichia
14b. Smaller flies with blunt abdomens; frons not swollen; male genitalia with flange-like lobes on inside of 9th tergum [Australian] ........... Paratrichia
   
15a. Pollinose scales [pruinescence?] on thorax
........... 16
15b. Black shiny flies wthout scales ........... 19
   
16a. Wing with vein R4 branching from cell R5 near the base
........... 17
16b. Wing with vein R4 branching from cell R5 near the middle ........... 18
   
17a. Male with two long aedeagal spines; female with 8th sternum excavated on distal margin, 9th tergum often with row of stiff spines on posterior margin [Nearctic, Neotropical]
........... Brevitrichia
17b. Male with short aedeagal parameres; female with long pointed 8th sternum, 9th tergum with stiff spines [Neotropical] ........... Heteromphrale
   
18a. Male with 9th tergum as two flaps covering genitalia; female with distinctive spines on 9th tergum [Afrotropical]
........... Propebrevitrichia
18b. Male with 9th tergum as two lobes, short; female with reduced spines on 9th tergum, 8th sternum longer than tergum, pointed [Australian] ........... Riekiella (part)
18c. Male with 9th tergum as four long lobes, elongate; female with 8th segment elongate, blunt, tergum and sternum subequal [Australian] ........... Paramonova
18d. Male with 9th tergum as two [?] short lobes; female with reduced spines on 9th tergum, 8th sternum longer than tergum, 3-lobed apically [Neotropical] ........... Irwiniana


 
19a. Antennae pointed; vein R4 branching from R5 at distal third of cell R5 [Afrotropical] ........... Stenomphrale
19b. Antennae blunt; vein R4 branching from R5 before middle of cell R5 [Palearctic] ........... Pseudomphrale
   
20a. Antennal flagellum gradually tapered apically, triangular or lancet shaped; apical style small and inconspicuous; probosis largely sclerotised, usually longer than face; mesonotum and scutellum with bristles; thickening of costa eding at or just beyond apex of R5
........... 22
20b. Antennal flagellum not as above; probosis fleshy and shorter than face; mesonotum without bristles; scutellum with or without bristles ........... 21
   
21a. Antennal flagellum abruptly narrower at apical portion, with a tuft of hairs at apex, without apical style; thickening of costa ending at or just beyond apex of R4; scutellum without bristles; abdomen largely white or pale yellow [Nearctic]
........... Caenotoides
21b. Antennal flagellum gradually narrowed apically, with thick apical style that is wider than apex of preceding segment; thickening of costa ending at or just beyond apex of R5; scutellum with a pair of marginal bristles; abdomen dark brown or black [Nearctic] ........... Acaenotus
   
22a. Vein M2 arising from M1; female occiput not forming postocular rim
........... 23
22b. Vein M2 arising from discal cell; female with postocular rim [Neotropical] ........... Jackhallia
   
23a. [Nearctic] (still need a good character!) ........... Prorates
23b. [Afrotropical] (still need a good character!) ........... Alloxytropus

Scenopinid Literature


  1. Adams, C.F. (1904) Notes on and descriptions of North American Diptera. Kansas University Science Bulletin 2: 433-455.
  2. Agassiz, L. (1846) Nomenclatoris Zoologici. Index Universalis. pp. 393 Solodure, Switzerland.
  3. Alexander, K.N.A. (1991) Scenopinus niger DeGeer (Scenopinidae) in Montgomeryshire. Dipterists Digest 8: 24.
  4. Alexander, K.N.A. (1996) A review of records for Scenopinus niger (Degeer) (Diptera, Scenopinidae) in Wales. Dipterists Digest Second Series 2: 90-91.
  5. Allen, A.A. (1979) An outdoor occurrence of Scenopinus fenestralis (L.) (Dipt., Scenopinidae). Entomologists Monthly Magazine 115: 200. [text states that a pair of specimens swept from foliage in garden]
  6. Arnaud, P.H. (1979) A catalog of the types of Diptera in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences. Myia 1: 139-150.
  7. Becker, T. (1902) Aegyptische Dipteren. Berlin Zool. Museum Mitt. 2: 1-66, [+1 plate].
  8. Becker, T. (1907) Die Ergebnisse meiner dipterologischen Frühjahrsreise nach Algier und Tunis, 1906 (Concl.) Z. system. Hym. Diptera 7: 33-61, 97-128, 225-256, 369-407, 454, [+12 figures].
  9. Becker, T. (1908) Dipteren der Kanarischen Inseln. Mitteilungen aus dem zoologischen Museum in Berlin 4(1): 1-180; Berlin.
  10. Becker, T. (1913) Persische Dipteren von den Expeditionen des Herrn N. Zarudny, 1898 und 1901. Annals Museum of Zoology Academy of Science St. Petersburg 17: 503-654. (1912) [+3 plates].
  11. Bezzi, M. (1922) On the South American species of the Dipterous genus Chriomyza Wied. (Diptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 15: 117-124.
  12. Bezzi, M. (1925a) Une Novelle Espece du Genre Pseudomphrale de l'Afrique du Sud. Encyclopedie Entomologique. Series B. Diptera 2: 95-98.
  13. Bezzi, M. (1925b) Quelques notes sur les Bombyliides (dipt.) d'Egypte, avec desciption d'espèces nouvelles. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique d'Egypte 8:159-242. [1924]
  14. Bosak, J. (1996) Faunistic records from the Czech Republic - 52. Diptera: Scenopinidae. Klapalekiana 32: 270.
  15. Bosak, J. (1997) Scenopinidae (Diptera) of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Folia Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Masarykianae Brunensis Biologia 95: 23-25.
  16. Bosak, J. & Bartak, M. (2000) Scenopinidae. Folia Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Masarykianae Brunensis Biologia 104: 163-165.
  17. Bowden, J. (1999) Scenopinidae (Dipt.) in N.E. Essex. Entomologists Monthly Magazine 135: 176. [Records Sc. fenestralis & Sc. niger in Essex]
  18. Brauns, A. (1954) Untersuchungen zur angewandten Bodenbiologie. Vol. 2: Puppen terricole Dipterenlarven. Gottingen, Frankfurt, Berlin. 156 pp.
  19. Carles-Tolrá, M. (1995) Insecta: Diptera, 20-26. Families 20-26: Conopidae, Xenasteiidae, Acroceridae, Nemestrinidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae and Vermileonidae. Catalogus de la Entomofauna Aragonesa 8: 7-9
  20. Carles-Tolrá, M. (1998) New data on the Diptera from Spain (Diptera: Scenopinidae, Xylomyidae, Lonchopteridae, Hippoboscidae, Nycteribiidae). Boletin de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia 22: 75-79.
  21. Carles-Tolrá, M. (1999a) New and interesting Diptera to the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands (Diptera: Xylomyidae, Stratiomyidae, Acroceridae, Scenopinidae, Lonchopteridae, Opetiidae, Platypezidae, Conopidae). Boletin de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia 23: 195-212.
  22. Carles-Tolrá, M. (1999b) Scenopinus efflatouni Kelsey, 1969: new record to Europe (Diptera, Scenopinidae). Boletin de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia 23: 328.
  23. Carles-Tolrá, M. (2001) Two new species of Scenopinus Latreille from Spain (Diptera, Scenopinidae). Boletin de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia 25: 35-41.
  24. Cole, F.R. (1923a) A revision of the North American two-winged flies of the family Therevidae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 62: 1-140 [+13 plates].
  25. Cole, F.R. (1923b) Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Gulf of California in 1921. Diptera from the islands and adjacent shores of the Gulf of California. II. General report. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 12: 457-481.
  26. Cole, F.R. & Schlinger, E.I. (1969) Scenopinidae. In F.R. Cole The flies of western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  27. Coquillett, D.W. (1900) New Scenopinidae from the United States. Entomological News 11: 500-501.
  28. Coquillett, D.W. (1902) New Diptera from North America. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 25: 83-126.
  29. Cresson, E.T. (1907) The North American species of the dipterous family Scenopinidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 33: 109-114.
  30. Curran, C.H. (1928) Diptera of the American Museum Congo Expedition. Part 3, Stratiomyidae, Rhagionidae, Therevidae, Scenopinidae, Ortalidae, Micropezidae, Piophilidae, Sepsidae, and Diopsidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 58 (4): 167-187.
  31. Dalla Torre, K.W. (1877 [1878]) Beitrage zur Phyto-& Zoostatik des Egerlandes. Jehresb. naturh. Ver. Lotos 27: 7-208.
  32. De Geer, C. (1776) Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des Insectes. 5: 1-523. [30 plates] Stockholm.
  33. De Meijere, J.C.H. (1924) Studien über Südostasiatische Dipteren, XV. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 67: 1-64.
  34. Daniels, G. (1978) Type specimens of Diptera in the Australian Museum. Records of the Australian Museum 31: 411-471.
  35. Dobson, J.R. (1999) Does Scenopinus fenestralis (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Scenopinidae) breed in beehives? Dipterists Digest Second Series 6: 42.
  36. Dunk, K. (1995) Zweifluger aus Bayern 6 (Diptera: Acroceridae, Scenopinidae, Pipunculidae). Entomofauna 16: 373-380.
  37. Edwards, F.W. (1932) Scenopinidae, Mydaidae. Diptera of Patagonia and south Chile. Part 5, fasc. 3, pp. 258-260.
  38. Efflatoun, H.C. (1945) A monograph of Egyptian Diptera. Part IV. Family Bombyliidae. Section I: Subfamily Bombyliidae Homeophthalmae. Bulletin de la Societe Fouad Ier d'Entomologie 29: 1-483.
  39. Enderlein, G. (1914) Dipterologische Studien X. Zur Kenntnis der Stratiomyiiden mit 3 zästiger Media und ihre Gruppierung. B, Formen, bei denen der 1. Cubitalast mit der Discoidalzelle eine Strecke verschmolzen ist (Familien: Hermetiinae, Clitellariinae). Zoologisher Anzeiger 44: 1-25.
  40. Enderlein, G. (1934) Dipterologica. I. Sber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berl. 1933: 416-429.
  41. Engel, E.O. (1932) Family Omphralidae. pp:123-126. In F. Dahl, (ed.) Die Tierweldt Deutschlands vol. 26, teil 5, pp. 204, Jena.
  42. Evenhuis, N.L. (1980) Catalog of entomological types in the Bishop Museum. Diptera: Rachiceridae, Scenopinidae, Empididiae. Pacific Insects 22: 212-215.
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