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Poultry diseases are spread through the transmission of these disease-causing agents. Diseases can be spread from sick birds to healthy birds in two ways: Directly and indirectly.
Chicken eating
Sick chicken with head lowered
Direct transmission occurs when there is close or direct contact between a sick bird and a healthy bird. The disease causing agents can be found on the feathers of a sick bird, in its excrement or even in the tiny water droplets formed by its sneezes.
 
Chicken salivating
Exotic Newcastle Disease affected rooster
 
Chicken on a patio
Healthy chicken on a patio
Indirect transmission occurs when the healthy birds come in close contact with objects contaminated by a sick bird. Examples include shoes, hands, even equipment or vehicles. For instance, if you handle your neighbor's sick birds, you can carry the disease back to your healthy birds on your clothing and hands. Diseases can even be carried to birds on your shoes by stepping on the excrement from sick birds.
Contaminated dirt on boot sole
Infected debris or excrement on boots can spread disease
 
Fingernails carry disease
Dirty fingernails harbor disease also
 
Excrement in tire tread Infected debris or excrement on tires can spread disease
Sample questions.
Direct transmission of disease occurs when there is close contact between a sick bird and a healthy bird.
a) True
b) False
If you handle your neighbor's sick birds, you can carry the disease back to your healthy birds on your clothing and on your hands and make them sick.
a) True
b) False
Insects and rodents also play a role in transmitting disease to your birds.