capillare L.][PANCA] Photographs
[Panicum antidotale Retz.][Bayer code: none][CDFA
list: B] Map of Distribution Photographs
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Culms usually branched. Blades flat, rolled in bud, tips
acute. Sheaths open, +/- 4-8 cm long. Ligules consist of a fringe
of hairs. Auricles lacking.
and UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES:
lack awns and consist of a lower sterile floret and an
upper fertile floret. Spikelets ~ 2-3 mm long, +/- 1
mm wide, detach as a unit. Glumes and sterile lemmas membranous.
Lower glume clasping and smaller than upper glume, ~ 1/2 the length
of spikelets. Fertile lemma hard, smooth, glossy, glabrous, tightly
enfolding palea, +/- pale greenish to straw-colored at maturity.
CHARACTERISTICS: Foliage is usually killed by freezing temperatures,
but may persist through winter with vegetative characteristics
HABITAT: Open, disturbed
sites, roadsides, fields, irrigated pastures, irrigation ditches,
PROPAGATION/PHENOLOGY: Seeds fall
near the parent plant or disperse to greater distances with human
activities, soil movement, water, animals, wind, and as seed or
hay contaminants. Most seed germinates from late spring through
Fall panicum [Panicum dichotomiflorum Michaux][PANDI]
and wild-proso millet or broom corn millet [Panicum
miliaceum L.][PANMI] are less common summer annuals
that resemble witchgrass. Unlike witchgrass, mature
fall panicum has +/- glabrous foliage, spikelet
stalks ~ 1 mm long that lay close (appressed) to the
inflorescence branches, and lower glumes 1/4-1/3 the length
of the spikelets. Fall panicum seedlings have densely
hairy sheaths, but blades are only hairy on the lower surfaces.
Fall panicum occurs in the San Joaquin Valley and Southwest
region to 500 m (1650 ft). Introduced from the Eastern U.S. Wild-proso
millet is distinguished by having dense, +/- drooping
panicles with ascending branches, spikelets
4-6 mm long and ~ 2 mm wide, and blades with
small auricles. At maturity, fertile florets are often glossy
orange-brown. Wild-proso millet is cultivated as a grain
crop in Eurasia, Africa, and the U.S. and is a common component
of commercial birdseed. It occurs in the Central Valley, San Francisco
Bay region, Southwest region, and occasionally elsewhere as a
volunteer, to 1000 m (3300 ft). Introduced from Eurasia. Hillmans
panicgrass [Panicum capillare L. ssp. hillmanii
(Chase) Freckmann & Lelong] is a regional subspecies of witchgrass
introduced from the Great Plains to the Sacramento Valley.
It is sometimes considered a distinct species Panicum hillmanii
Chase. Unlike witchgrass, Hillmans panicgrass
has a large crescent-shaped scar at the base of the fertile floret.
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